Galactofuranose in Mycoplasma mycoides is important for membrane integrity and conceals adhesins
but does not contribute to serum resistance.
aureus, these substances are regulated by the ica operon, which controls polysaccharide intercellular adhesins
(PIA) (HEILMANN et al., 1996).
Multiplex PCR was used to detect genes encoding for 11 frequently encountered extraintestinal virulence factors (sfa/foc, papC, papGII, papGIII, fyuA, iroN, aer, traT, neuC, hlyC, and cnf1), which belong to the main classes of virulence factors (adhesins
, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and protectins) (11).
According to previous research, virulence factors include genes encoding iron acquisition systems (iron, iuc), adhesins
(fim, afal, sfa, iha), toxins (cnf1, hlyA, set, astA, usp), and biofilms (pgaABCD).
UPEC strains encode widespread virulence factors closely related to colonization, persistence, and pathogenesis of bacteria in the urinary tract; the most important of these factors include adhesins
or fimbriae, biofilm formation, siderophores and toxins such as haemolysins (Hly) (Dhakal et al., 2008) and cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF1) (Wiles et al., 2008a).
Bacterial attachment is an initial and a critical step for the establishment of infection that involves bacterial adhesins
and host receptors.
Schapendonk et al., "SgrA, a nidogen-binding LPXTG surface adhesin
implicated in biofilm formation, and EcbA, a collagen binding MSCRAMM, are two novel adhesins
of hospital-acquired Enterococcus faecium," Infection and Immunity, vol.
Korhonen, "Binding characteristics of Escherichia coli adhesins
in human urinary bladder," Infection and Immunity, vol.
Bakhrouf, "Cell surface hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, adhesives properties and molecular detection of adhesins
genes in Staphylococcus aureus," Microbial Pathology, vol.
Glycans present in microorganisms or their human adhesins
, some of which are expressed in tumors, are listed in Table 2.
They cover anatomical and physiological aspects, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, infections in children, the involvement of the vaginal microbiome, asymptomatic urinary tract infections, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, and urosepsis; reservoirs of infection, antimicrobial resistance, phylogeny, virulence, and fitness factors, including exotoxins, the structure of adhesins
, adaptive mutations, and intracellular persistence, as well as other uropathogens; and host responses and emerging therapeutics, including innate immunity, sensation and pain in the bladder, and drug and vaccine development.
Entamoeba histolytica: adhesins
and lectins in the trophozoite surface.