To determine whether NANOG-GFP transgene expression was down- regulated during differentiation of another cell type, GFP expression was monitored during the differentiation of adipocytes
for 26 days without MEF and LIF.
Method: Quantification of glucose transporter (GLUT4) transcript was done in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
and L6 myotubes by qPCR using RPL23 as the internal control.
Adipose tissue, adipocytes
, adiponectin, body fat and triglycerides are among a flotilla of adiposity-related terminology popular in the vocabulary of body weight and physical-appearance-conscious consumers.
By analyzing the cellular circuitry underlying the strongest genetic association with obesity, the researchers have unveiled a new pathway that controls human metabolism by prompting our adipocytes
, or fat cells, to store fat or burn it away.
Based on these observations we propose insulin hypersecretion as an etiological factor promoting lipid deposition, insulin resistance, cellular dysfunction and death in insulin-producing beta-cells and insulin-target brown adipocytes
Scherer's seminal work has demonstrated an initially protective role for obesity, keeping excess lipid in adipocytes
and out of the non-adipocyte
tissues, which are not designed to store fat.
The scientists genetically engineered mice to lack the HIF-1 alpha protein within their adipocytes
This leveling of adipocyte
size with extreme obesity suggests that presence of large adipocytes
may stimulate adipocyte
proliferation to accommodate additional weight gain.
Adiponectin secreted from adipocytes
binds to adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and exerts antidiabetic effects via activation of AMPK and PPAR-α pathways, respectively," (http://www.
Thus, it seems likely that the anti-obesity effects of the hops may be partly due to stimulation of the excretion of water from the body and a reduction in the accumulation of lipids in adipocytes
through inhibition of PPAR[gamma] expression.
Since it was recently shown that brown adipocytes
also exist in adult humans, research has focused on understanding how brown adipocytes
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that exposure to tributyltin (TBT) modulates critical steps of adipogenesis through RXR/PPAR[gamma] and that prenatal TBT exposure predisposes multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to become adipocytes
by epigenetice imprinting into the memory of the MSC compartment.