Caption: Figure 2: Fat accumulation in mature adipocytes
. Lipid droplets in adipocytes
were stained with Oil Red O.
Although multiple molecular processes are involved in increasing adipose tissue mass, obesity can be a result of both an increase in adipocyte
size as a consequence of increased triacylglycerol content within the fat cell and an increased number of adipocytes
resulting from differentiation of precursor cells .
In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) is central to lipid regulation and a major source of metabolites, facilitating both the storage of fatty acids as neutral lipids within the lipid droplets (LDs) of adipocytes
and regulating the release of fatty acids in response to both acute and chronic stimuli.
While this process occurs in all mammalian cells, adipocytes
are the predominant cellular constituent of adipose tissue where excess energy is stored as neutral lipids in the form of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters.
, osteoblasts and chondrocytes are distinct from another production line in the bone marrow--the hematopoietic system--that makes red blood cells, blood-clotting cells and cells of the immune system.
Overall, the major factors that impact the survival of fat grafts are the amount of hematoma in the recipient site, number of live adipocytes
at the time of transfer, contact of graft with the vascular bed, and severity of inflammation in the tissue.
Vascularization and the adipocytes
' influence therein, e.g., rely on the factors available in the culture medium (Moya et al., 2010; Aubin et al., 2015; Yao et al., 2013b; Rajashekhar et al., 2008; Aoki et al., 2003).
Knockout of IRX3 expression in mice caused an increase in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene expression in white adipose cells which is an important factor of browning white adipocytes
. However, contradictory results were found in this area.
IMF is decided by the number and size of intramuscular adipocytes
, and is directly related to the juiciness and tenderness of meat .
The findings showed that cinnamaldehyde, an essential oil that gives cinnamon its flavor,improves metabolic health by acting directly on fat cells, or adipocytes
, inducing them to start burning energy through a process called thermogenesis.
For example, GPR43 levels were significantly increased during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes
, which can be further upregulated by treatment with adipogenic agent such as troglitazone .
Marrow stromal cells, including osteoblasts, adipocytes
derived from BMSCs, are thought to form the hematopoietic microenvironment .