This same zone features hydromagnetic "Alfven waves
" moving back and forth between its outermost edge and the sun's surface.
In 1942, Alfven  gave the theory of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and suggested that electrically conducting fluid can support the propagation of shear waves called the Alfven waves
. Basically, MHD describes the behavior of electrically conducting fluid in the presence of magnetic field .
The first two roots [[omega].sub.1], [[omega].sub.2] relate to the magnetic Alfven waves
, the next four roots specify magnetosonic waves of different directions of propagation (the so-called slow and fast MHD waves of different direction of propagation), and the last root [[omega].sub.7] corresponds to the entropy mode.
Core ion interactions with BBELF, lower hybrid, and Alfven waves
in the high-latitude topside ionosphere, J.
(29) The Alfven waves
do not develop into shocks, but their nonlinear wave-wave interaction may generate compressive waves which then dissipate their energy by shock formation.
Moreover, they were the first to give an evidence for the propagation of Alfven waves
in solar X-ray jets.
His team, which includes researchers from the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology, used combined data from a telescope based in Hawaii and NASA's solar satellite to investigate powerful magnetic waves, known as Alfven waves
, where the Sun's wind originates.
Potemra  concluded that Birkeland currents and Alfven waves
are fundamental to an understanding of the Earth's plasma environment.
The researchers studied waves known as magnetosonic waves, and they are a hybrid of sound waves and magnetic waves called Alfven waves
. Unlike sound waves on Earth, which oscillate several hundred times per second, these waves oscillate about once every four hours-and are about 10 times the length of Earth.
This equation models Alfven waves
and magnetohydrodynamic waves in plasmas and also model subpicosecond or femtosecond pulses in single-mode optical fibers in nonlinear optics [11, 12].
11:15 MEASUREMENTS OF THE NONLINEAR INTERACTION BETWEEN COUNTERPROPAGATING ALFVEN WAVES
Takeda, "Modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation for Alfven waves
propagating along the magnetic field in cold plasmas," Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol.