This business benefited principally from higher demand for alkoxides
. Adjusted EBITDA at the segment declined 9 percent to [euro]59 million.
The reaction can be catalyzed by bases (NaOH, KOH, carbonates and corresponding alkoxides
), mineral acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric and sulphonic), solid acid oxides (Ti[O.sub.2], Sn[O.sub.2], ZnO, [Li.sub.4]Si[O.sub.4], [Li.sub.2]Si[O.sub.3], LiAl[O.sub.2] and [Li.sub.2]Ti[O.sub.3]) and either enzymes like lipases [4-12].
The precursor compounds used are usually metal alkoxides
[M (OR)n], where M represents a network-forming element (such as Si, Ti, Zr, Al, B, etc), and R is an alkyl group.
In other words, by combining an ionic liquid with metal alkoxides
, it is possible to create new nano-fine metal oxide porous cross-linked systems that have practical applications in various fields, e.g.
Both potassium ethoxide and sodium ethoxide, known as alkoxides
, are soluble in ethanol and have high reactivity with water .
Recently , we showed that molecules bearing hydroxyl groups can reduce gold and silver ions in alkaline media via formation of alkoxides
that are the actual reducing agents.
Tsai, "Hydrolysis and condensation of forsterite precursor alkoxides
: modification of the molecular gel structure by acetic acid," Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.
Lorenz, "Hybrid inorganicorganic materials by sol-gel processing of organofunctional metal alkoxides
," Chemistry of Materials, vol.
The removal of the byproducts and unreacted alkoxides
causes a significant decrease in volume and shrinkage, which could be disadvantageous in some applications [5, 6].
Chapters are: environmental applications of multifunctional nanocomposite catalytic materials; chemical transformation of molecular precursor into well-defined nanostructural functional framework via soft chemical approach; graphenes in heterogeneous catalysis; gold nanoparticlesugraphene composites material; hydrogen generation from chemical hydrides; ring-opening polymerization of lactide; catalytic performance of metal alkoxides
; cycloaddition of Co20 and epoxides over reusable solid catalysts; catalytic metal-/bio-composites for fine chemicals derived from biomass production; homoleptic metal carbonyls in organic transformation; zeolites; optimizing zeolitic catalysis for environmental remediation.
(20) Secondary alkoxides
are known to isomerize into primary alkoxides
, and it is well known that secondary alkoxides
are more stable, but less reactive, than primary alkoxides
Certain advantage of sol-gel technique includes high product purity due to mixing on the molecular scale, reduced firing temperature due to small particle sizes with high surface areas, ability to produce uniform fine-grained structures and use of different chemical routes (alkoxides
or aqueous based) [1-7].