From the second to third century, a commercial network emerged in the Java Sea that focused on the exchange of aloeswood
, sandalwood, and spices, including cloves.
Barry, of Aloeswood
Close, Everton, now accepted his guilt.
Related to typology, and equally challenging for the exhibition, is the fact that so many gifts, particularly in the medieval period, comprised large quantities of raw materials, including elephant tusks, musk, camphor, ambergris, aloeswood
, gold, and silver.
Many other aromatic woods besides sandalwood were also used in incense manufacture, including primarily aloeswood
or agarwood (chenxiang); see Kieschnick, The Impact of Buddhism, 277-78; Chen, "Joss Stick Manufacturing," 94-5; Ju Kow-Choy, "The Cultivation of the 'Incense Tree' (Aquilaria Sinensis)," Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 23 (1983): 247-249.
oil termed as 'oudh' in the Middle East is highly valued for its fragrance, it can go upto astonishingly high prices due to the level of demand that exists.
31) That is, 'Chenxiang xie: di yi huxiang' (Aloeswood
Incense: First Brasier, 1943) and 'Chenxiang xie: di er huxiang' Aloeswood
Incense: Second Brasier, 1943).
By about AD200 the route extended east as far as the Spice Islands (the Moluccas, in eastern Indonesia) by which time a wealth of wondrous eastern aromas was reaching world markets: cloves, nutmeg, cubebs, cinnamon, cardamoms, black pepper, turmeric, frankincense, myrrh, balsam of Mecca, aloeswood
, sandalwood and spikenard.
5-6, reading "and aloeswood, and citron leaves and seeds of sweet basil [that] strengthens buds of cloves," should be corrected to "and aloeswood, and citron leaves and seeds of fara[n]jamushk, i.
14-15 should read "dry mint and wild marjoram and raw aloeswood of each one dirham.
Constantine, 29, of Aloeswood
Close, Anfield, was jailed for eight-and-a-half years last December after being convicted of robbery at Liverpool crown court.
In the Suramgama-sutra, he recounts how he smelled aloeswood
incense and observed that the fragrant "breath" or "air" was "not wood, not emptiness, not smoke, not fire; going, it attached to nothing, coming, it followed [or: came from] nothing.