This multistage, multidisciplinary project published, in 1972, the results of an extensive surface exploration of a very large area, bounded to the west and south by the sea, to the east by the Taygetus Mountains, and to the north by the Alpheios valley and Triphylia in all, an area of ca.
Certain areas within the UMME territory appear consistently utilized from the Geometric through Hellenistic periods, such as the Stenyclarian plain, the Pamisos valley, the Alpheios valley, and Triphylia.
3.2.21-22, 4.7.2; Strabo 8.3.30), so their presence here could be merely a local reference, (34) like the personifications of the Alpheios
and Kladeos rivers in the corners of the pediment (A, P), (35) or they could be depicted as foreseeing the outcome of the race.
Since the mid-Holocene epoch, sediments from the Alpheios River in Elis, in the western Peloponnese, have been entrained in littoral currents and deposited to form barriers, coastal lagoons, and peripheral marshes.
Fed by sediments eroding from the uplands of Elis via the deltas of the Peneus, Alpheios, and Nedon rivers and numerous smaller streams, littoral processes have created a sequence of lagoons, marshes, barrier accretion plains, coastal dune fields, swamps, and deltas.
Coastal landform changes during the past 8,000 years in Elis have been dominated by the longshore redistribution of sediments from the deltas of the Alpheios and Peneus rivers.
Questions remain about the drainage basin of the Alpheios River.
Assuming that the wave regime of the Ionian Sea was similar to that of the present, the impact of wave impingement on the deltas of the Alpheios and Peneus rivers during a period of a more slowly rising sea level could have initiated coastal barrier and lagoon development on the low-lying, shallow inner shelf of Elis.
Other scholars have dealt with alluviation events in the Alpheios and Peneus drainage basins.
An intriguing aspect of the studies of coastal Ells is that the ancient literature is replete with references to flooding events of the Alpheios River caused by the catastrophic drainage of temporarily dammed lakes in the interior karst topography of western Arcadia.
The Ladon is the biggest tributary of the Alpheios which is the largest river at the west side of the Peloponnese.