also known as the death cap is a mushroom that accounts for over 90 % of all fatal mushroom poisonings across the globe.
The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides
was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America.
The poisonous fungus, Amanita Phalloides
, is better known by what name?
, colloquially known as the "death cap," belongs to the Phalloideae section of the Amanita family of mushrooms and is responsible for most deaths following ingestion of foraged mushrooms worldwide (1).
The fungal species in the Indiana checklist demonstrate the wide range of fungal diversity that exist in the state, and a number of species in the maerofungi checklist have importance to humans, such as deadly poisonous mushrooms (e.g., Amanita phalloides
, see Pringle & Vellinga 2006) and choice edibles (e.g., Cantharellus and Morchella, see Molina et al.
I like my sister Constance, and Richard Plantagenet, and Amanita phalloides
, the death-cup mushroom.
Mushroom gathering doesn't come without its risks however, and digesting a toxic death cap mushroom (amanita phalloides
) can be fatal.
(a,b) Agaricales Agaricaceae Agaricus bisporus -- Agaricus blazei 0.30 op Amanitaceae Amanita komarekensis 0.16 uv Amanita phalloides
0.43 kl Amanita rubescens 0.87 c Amanita sp.
tigrinus slightly more toxic than Cortinarius speciosissimus and Cortinarius orellanus with L[D.sub.50] values of 2.0 g/kg and 3.2 g/kg, respectively  but less toxic compared to the 10 mg lethal dose of Amanita phalloides
amatoxin reported by Patowary .
In animals, silymarin reduces liver injury caused by acetaminophen, carbon tetrachloride, radiation, iron overload, phenylhydrazine, alcohol, cold ischaemia and Amanita phalloides
. Silymarin has been used to treat alcoholic liver disease, acute and chronic viral hepatitis and toxin-induced liver diseases.
(10.) Jander S, Bischoff J Treatment of Amanita phalloides
poisoning: I Retrospective evaluation of plasmapheresis in 21patients.