Tooth enamel is the most highly mineralized tissue in the body and it is a unique tissue that differs from other types of hard tissue since tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts
that are derived from the dental epithelium.
Even though, dental epithelial stem cells contribute in the regeneration of ameloblasts
in rodents, these cells differ from human teeth, as dental epithelial stem cells are lost after eruption of the tooth.
(11) Moreover, GHRL has been found in saliva as well as cells and tissues of the tooth germ, such as the inner enamel epithelium, mesenchymal cells, ameloblasts
, odontoblasts, and Hertwig's epithelial root sheath.
Skin epithelial cells as possible substitutes for ameloblasts
during tooth regeneration.
During the intrauterine life, the chronic deficiency of vitamins, particularly vitamin D, is one of the factors related to the changes in the function of ameloblasts
and formation of DDE (8).
Enamel production, which is controlled by ameloblasts
, is a rhythmical apposition of the enamel matrix (Goodman and Rose 1990, 1991).
EH is caused by a physical disruption in the ameloblasts
during the tooth development.
Enamel hypoplasia was defined by a reduced deposition of the enamel matrix by the ameloblasts
. This alteration is clinically featured by depressions or grooves on the surface of the tooth.
The basal cells of the epithelial lining were mainly columnar and similar to ameloblasts
and the overlying layers were loosely arranged, resembling the stellate reticulum of the enamel organ.
However, excessive fluoride in drinking water, exceeding a concentration of 0.5-1.5mg/l, can lead to metabolic alteration in ameloblasts
; this results in a defective matrix and improper calcification of teeth, known as dental fluorosis .
Other studies suggested that the ability of iPS cells to differentiate into ameloblasts
and odontogenic mesenchymal cells is promising in tooth bioengineering [9, 12].
FAM20C is mainly expressed in osteoblasts, odontoblasts and ameloblasts
in skeletal and dental tissues and is a novel FGF23 regulator (95,96).