tRNA

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tRNA

abbr.
transfer RNA

transfer RNA



n.
any of a class of small, cloverleaf forms of RNA that transfer unattached amino acids in the cell cytoplasm to the ribosomes for protein synthesis.
Abbr.: tRNA
[1960–65]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.tRNA - RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according to directions coded in the mRNA)tRNA - RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according to directions coded in the mRNA)
ribonucleic acid, RNA - (biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell; "ribonucleic acid is the genetic material of some viruses"
References in periodicals archive ?
# Interferes with amino acid transfer from aminoacyl-tRNA to protein on the ribosomes.
They found 10 potential biomarkers including 1,5 Anhydroglucitol (The most important metabolite), [alpha]-Hydroxyvaleric acid, Galactose glucitol, Phenylalanine, Glutamic acid, L-Isoleucine, Phenylpropionic acid, N-acetylglycine, Ornithine and Lysine, and six metabolic pathways (Alanine, Aspartate and Glutamate metabolism, Arginine and Proline metabolism, Lysine degradation, Phenylalanine metabolism, Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, D-Glutamine and D-Glutamate metabolism) in plasma.
Reaction of anti-OJ autoantibodies with components of the multi-enzyme complex of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in addition to isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase.
Partnering with these 20 tRNAs are 20 matching helper enzymes known as synthetases (aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases), whose job it is to load their partner tRNAs with the correct amino acid.
The most important pathways in Alzheimer's disease included glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, methane metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine metabolism, pantothenate and CoA metabolism, TCA cycle, and cysteine and methionine metabolism.
This antibody was classified as myositis-specific autoantibody and its corresponding antigen was reported to be a 50-kDa histidine transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase, a type of cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS).
Interstitial lung disease with autoantibodies against aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the absence of clinically apparent myositis.
Based on the MetaboAnalyst results, the most impacted pathways after bariatric interventions are aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; nitrogen metabolism; phenylalanine metabolism; cysteine and methionine metabolism; TCA cycle (citrate cycle); taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosyntheses; propanoate metabolism; and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism (Figure 2).
Called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), they link amino acids to RNA strings, playing an important role in the essential life process of converting genes into proteins.
Dirheimer, Comparative study of the effect of ochratoxin A analogues on yeast aminoacyl-tRNA synthases and on the growth and protein synthesis of hepatoma cells.
However, the 134 differentially expressed proteins overlapped in Figure 2(b) belonged to the following pathways: aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, mTOR signaling pathway, spliceosome, Parkinson's disease, and so forth (Figure 5(b)).
The six potential pathways were alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, lysine degradation, and phenylalanine metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism (Figure 5).