areg

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areg

(əˈrɛɡ)
n
(Physical Geography) a plural of erg2
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'We can conclude that ferric citrate and ferric EDTA might be carcinogenic, as they both increase the formation of amphiregulin, a known cancer marker most often associated with long-term cancer with poor prognosis,' said lead author Nathalie Scheers.
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) has shown promise in animal models and early human studies, promoting cumulus cell expansion [52], and recombinant epidermal growth factor has been added with success to some culture systems [53] as well as its family members amphiregulin and epiregulin showing promise in terms of maturation rates and embryo developmental capacity to the day two to three stage [54].
Finally, Tregs may promote tissue repair through the production of amphiregulin (AREG), ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), expressed in epidermal cells and other resident cells.
Hamada et al., "Amphiregulin suppresses epithelial cell apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.
Molecular cloning and endometrial expression of porcine amphiregulin. Mol Reprod Dev 2003;65:366-72.
(85,86,90,91,97,148) Despite the latter, it has been shown that some CRTC1-MAML2 fusion-positive MECs have increased EGFR signaling via amphiregulin (AREG), and that may stimulate growth of MEC.
It has been proposed that quercetin can influence the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the overexpression of some ligands like amphiregulin [12] and also has been shown that quercetin, at a dose of 10 [micro]M, decreases the phosphorylation of EGFR in prostate cancer cells (PC3), producing a diminished expression of target proteins like vimentin, N-cadherin, and cyclin D1 [13].
Except for the signaling pathways mentioned above, there are others to affect the cancer stem cells; for example, FOXO3/LKB1/AMPK/PGC-1[beta]/PDHA1 pathway is essential for CD44 expression and CSCs properties [89]; the mutual regulation between STAT3 and miR-181b could induce esophageal cancer stem-like cells proliferation and apoptosis resistance via CYLD pathway [90], and miR-34c-5p inhibits amphiregulin (AREG) to suppress ovarian cancer stemness and drug resistance via the AREG-EGFR-ERK pathway [91].
Khan, "Liver regeneration, growth factors, and amphiregulin," Gastroenterology, vol.
The reported number of ErbB ligands increased to 11, namely, amphiregulin (AR), betacellulin (BCT), epidermal growth factor (EGF), epigen (EPG), epiregulin (EPR), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF[alpha]), neuregulin- (NRG-) 1 to neuregulin-4 [5, 7, 38].
According to Sabra Klein, the study leader and associate professor at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg's molecular microbiology and immunology department, the next phase of the study is to examine how progesterone increases amphiregulin concentration.
In LIF-deficient female mice, EGF-like growth factors such as amphiregulin (Ar), heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), and epiregulin (Ereg) were not expressed at the site of blastocyst apposition [36], although expressions of EGF receptors were not affected [36].