in all other salamanders the collecting ducts bend caudally during development (Rodgers and Risley, 1938) and either anastomose and enter the cloaca (in the Plethodontidae and some Salamandridae; Francis, 1934; Baker, 1965; Strickland, 1966), anastomose and enter Wolthan ducts (in the Ambystomatidae, Amphiumidae
, and some Salamandridae, Baker, 1945; Baker and Taylor, 1964; Baker, 1965), or enter the cloaca individually (in the Cryptobranchidae and Hynobiidae; Ratcliff, 1965; Yamagiwa, 1924).
Family/Host Species Locality Prevalence (1) Reference Amphiumidae
Amphiuma tridactylum Louisiana 6/85 (7.1%) Bennett & Humes Plethodontidae (1938) Eurycea lucifuga Tennessee 1/549 (0.2%) This study Eurycea neotenes Texas 1/86 (1.2%) McAllister (1990) Salamandridae Notophthalmus Massachusetts 1/1 (100%) McAllister (1990) viridescens Sirenidae Siren sp.
Remarks -- The Clark Quarry vertebrae are assigned to the endemic North American salamander family Amphiumidae
based on the presence of postzygapophyseal crests (Fig.
u/i, table 1) are found in other salamandrid genera (e.g., Salamandra), and in most other urodeles, with the exception of taxa with reduced (e.g., Amphiumidae
, Sirenidae, Proteidae, which have lost digits and even entire limbs) or miniaturized limbs (e.g., Thorius, Nototriton, Bradytriton, Parvimolge, and Oedipina).