which glands are used to produce the silk (e.g., aciniform, ampullate
Spidroins have been classified into seven categories according to their protein sequences and functions; these categories include aciniform silk for wrapping prey (and tying down partners for mating); and the super-strong major ampullate
silk from which spiders (and Spider-Man) swing while at work.
For instance, aciniform silk is used by spiders to wrap their prey or to tie down their partners while they mate, and major ampullate
silk make the super-strong strands on which spiders swing while they move about.
24) fulvous, with numerous piriform gland spigots (pi) and the major ampullate
gland spigots; PMS (Fig.
For example, spiders use the filament spun from the Major ampullate
glands, referred to as dragline, as a lifeline to escape predators as well as to build the frame and radii of the web.
Dimensions, birefringences, and force-elongation behavior of major and minor ampullate
silk fibres from orb web-spinning spiders -- the effects of wetting on these properties.
Wolf spiders have four types of silk glands: piriform, ampullate
, aciniform and tubuliform (Richter 1970).
Spinnerets: ALS with two major ampullate
gland spigots and many piriform gland spigots (Fig.
Lewis and Ming Xu at the University of Wyoming in Laramie have determined part of the amino acid sequence of the protein molecules that twine into dragline (major ampullate
) silk of the orb-web spider Nephila clavipes.
Based on morphology, these silk glands can be grouped into seven general types: aciniform, aggregate, flagelliform, major ampullate
, minor ampullate
, pyriform, and tubuliform (Kovoor 1987).
Abbreviations used are as follows: ALE--anterior lateral eyes, ALS--anterior lateral spinneret, AME--anterior median eyes, AMS--major ampullate
spigots, BCC--basal cymbial concavity, C--conductor, CD--copulatory duct, CO--copulatory openings, d dorsal, DCS--dorsal cymbial scopulae, E--embolus, EP--secondary epigynal pockets, FD--fertilization duct, Fe--femur, LL--lateral lobe, MA--median apophysis, MF middle field of epigyne, Mt--metatarsus, Pat+Tib--Patella+Tibia, PLE--posterior lateral eyes, PLS--posterior lateral spinneret, PMA--paramedian apophysis, PME--posterior median eyes, PMS--posterior median spinneret, pr--prolateral, rt--retrolateral, RTA - retrolateral tibial apophysis, S--spermathecae, Ta--tarsus, Tib--tibia, v--ventral, VTA--ventral tibial apophysis.
15) with many piriform gland spigots (major ampullate
gland spigot on mesal margin not distinguished in female because of the angle of the SEM photos that excludes the mesal region of the spinnerets where the major ampullate
gland spigots occur--see Platnick & Ewing 1995; Ramirez et al.