The entire area of the flood plains is covered by thickets that are very similar to the tokai of the banks of the Amu Dar'ya, with poplars (Populus diversifolia, P.
Only two of the largest rivers--the Amu Dar'ya and the Syr Dar'ya--cross the desert, flowing for more than 620 mi (1,000 km) into the Aral Sea.
2] of an immense plain running from the Caspian Sea to the Amu Dar'ya at an altitude of 328-1,640 ft (100-500 m).
2], with some depressions and a number of isolated raised areas; it is located between the rivers Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya.
These plants grow outside the cold deserts but are found mainly in the valley of Amu Dar'ya, in the middle of the Karakum Desert.
In the Karakum, most permanent wells are in the areas of sand running alongside the course of the Amu Dar'ya.
In the sandy strips running alongside the Amu Dar'ya, the river is the main source of underground water, and the wells contain abundant, almost salt-free, water at depth of 10-20 ft (3-6 m).
Some of the Turkomans who lived in the Darganata region, on the left bank of the Amu Dar'ya, led their herds far into the sand desert area in the autumn and winter.
Many of the stockraisers who practiced a mixed economy on the banks of the Amu Dar'ya in the Dargan Ata region had a different seasonal migration cycle.
For example, during the 1830s, the Chovdur tribe of Turkomans moved from the Mangyshlak Peninsula in the Caspian Sea to Chorasmia (Khorezmskaya) in the lower stretches of the Amu Dar'ya and were allotted land at the edge of the oasis.
Abu Al-Ghazi states that in the past when the Amu Dar'ya "issued into the Mazanderan [the Caspian Sea], .
The strip of sand dunes running alongside the Amu Dar'ya formed because the area at the river's edge is a densely populated oasis.