The sucrose available for exporting from mesophyll cells is transported through the phloem to the sink organs, where it can be stored as starch in amyloplasts
or converted to hexoses (LEMOINE et al., 2013) by invertase (acidic and neutral isoforms) and sucrose synthase (susy) enzymes (STURM; TANG, 1999; WINTER; HUBER, 2000; WELHAM et al., 2009).
(2014), these diseases cause in P edulis hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the cambium, xylem and phloem; destruction of xylem fibers and amyloplasts
in parenchymal cells, as well as the production of gels, causing an expressive reduction in crop productivity.
barbatus stem, the endodermis has been reported to contain many amyloplasts
and the vascular bundle arrangement of P.
Chitinase III in pomegranate seeds (Punica granatum Linn.): a high-capacity calcium-binding protein in amyloplasts
. Plant J., 68: 765- 776
They have a dense cytoplasm with irregular shape filled with numerous small vesicles, oil body, abundant amyloplasts
and a prominent centrally placed nucleus (Fig.
Transmission electron microscopy showed that cells of the yellow friable callus had dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli, a large number of amyloplasts
, and absence of vacuoles.
Cai et al., "A complete ferredoxin/thioredoxin system regulates fundamental processes in amyloplasts
," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
ABA has been detected in every major organ of plant from the root cap to the apical bud and synthesized in almost all cells that contain chloroplast and amyloplasts
. It is a 15-carbon compound that resembles the terminal portion of some carotenoid molecules.
Starch has been found to serve as the predominant energy reserve in other well-studied secretory structures (Fahn 1979, Paiva & Machado 2008), and the juxtaposition of mitochondria and amyloplasts
indicate the energy need for starch hydrolysis, as discussed by Paiva & Machado (2008).
If polarized light microscopy is included, it can be used as a tool to identify plant material on the basis of the Maltese cross evident in amyloplasts
when viewed with crossed polars and the birefringence exhibited by cellulosic fibers (for complete instructions for a lab on polarized light microscopy, see McMahon, 2004).
Proteomic characterization of wheat amyloplasts
using identification of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry.