To perform the phytochemical screening stage was based on the methodology proposed by Matos (1997) which has been crafted with some adaptations in order to carry out prospecting the following allelochemicals: phenols, pyrogalic tannins, phlobaphene tannins, anthocyanin and anthocyanidin
, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, chalcones, aurones, flavononois, leucoantocianidinas, catechins, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, steroids and triterpenoids saponins.
The team also found that the elderberry's antiviral activity can be attributed to its anthocyanidin
compounds, phytonutrients responsible for giving the fruit it's vivid purple colour.
(2) Bilberry VMA (Vaccinium myrtillus, the anthocyanoside component of the extract) is usually standardised to contain 25% anthocyanidin
. Research studies have shown that bilberry extracts containing anthocyanosides have strong antioxidant properties, maintain collagen fibres by promoting their biosynthesis, reduce capillary permeability, and inhibit platelet aggregation.
Phenolic Acid and Anthocyanidin
Analysis by HPLCDAD.
PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase; CNL, cinnamoyl-CoA ligase; C4H, cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase; C3H, p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylase; COMT, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase; 4CL, 4-coumaroyl:CoAligase; CHS, chalcone synthase; CHR, chalcone reductase; CHI, chalcone isomerase; F3H, flavanone 3-hydroxylase; F3'H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase; FLS, flavonol synthase; UFGT, UDP glucose: flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase; FLS, flavonol synthase; DFR, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase; LAR, leucoanthocyanidin reductase; ANS, anthocyanidin
synthase; ANR, anthocyanidin
reductase; IFS, isoflavone synthase; IOMT, isoflavone O-methyltransferase; I3'H, isoflavone 3'-hydroxylase; I2'H, isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase.
PAL: phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; 4CL: 4-coumarate:CoA ligase; CHS: chalcone synthase; CHI: chalcone flavanone isomerase; F3H: flavanone 3-hydroxylase; F3'H: flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase; F3'5'H: flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase; FLS: flavonol synthase; DFR: dihydroflavonol 4-reductase; LDOX: leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase; LAR: leucoanthocyanidin reductase; ANR: anthocyanidin
reductase; 3GT: anthocyanin 3-O-glucosyltransferase; 53GT: anthocyanin 3,5-O-glucosyltransferase.
An increase in anthocyanidin
stability has been also reported by Francis  due to glycosylation and acylation.
These foods are full of a beneficial flavonoid called anthocyanidin
. As you're about to see, this flavonoid has health benefits for everything from your brain to your blood vessels to your nervous system.
Among the 2-oxoglutaric acid-dependent dioxygenase genes involved in the pathway, flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene (F3H) and anthocyanidin
synthase gene (ANS) had the highest levels of expression, suggesting that the loss of red color might be the reason of the synergistic inhibitory effect of these enzymes especially F3H and ANS in response to Pro-Ca.
European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  estimated a total anthocyanidin
mean intake of 64-88 (SE 1-86) mg/d and 44-08 (SE 2-45) mg/d for men and women, respectively (Turin, Italy).