of the Russian Communists contrasted with the strong links that often existed between Wales chapels and the labour movement.
Like the Virgin of Guadalupe, the Lady of Juquila has a heart for the local people and their land; one can sense in the devotion a certain populism and even anti-clericalism
, reflective of the Virgin's desire to be at home with local peasants rather than imprisoned in a church.
However, the chapter argues that because of the church's malfeasance, today many Irish people have turned away from the church, and anti-clericalism
can often be seen in the society.
Anti-Catholic sentiment was invariably echoed in the literatures of both countries, and anti-clericalism
was a prominent feature of Anti-Catholic fiction.
Hannah Smith's essay, "'Our Church's Safety' and 'Whig Feminism'" highlights similar concerns among Whig women, whose anti-clericalism
, while typical of Whig views more generally, was far from secular, given its attention to "our church.
As with the previous two writers, anti-clericalism
and the defense of the working classes are major themes in her works.
Themes explored include liberalism, nationalism, anti-clericalism
, the Second Republic, the civil wars of the 19th century, the Spanish Civil War, the Franco dictatorship, and the transition to democracy.
As a movement, Catholic Action had its beginnings in the latter part of the 19th century, when people proactively took measures to counteract the anti-clericalism
running rampant, especially throughout Europe.
Multiculturalism in Paris allows the radical anti-clericalism
of Charlie Hebdo, the rap music of the banlieues, cinematic masterpieces such as "La Vie D'Adele" by Abdellafit Kechiche or extraordinary books such as Marie Ndiaye's "La Divine" on the topic of identity.
Lower's hostility towards Catholicism did not rest solely in the interconnected strains of anti-clericalism
or anti-French Canadianism.
It may be that we would gain important insights into the larger role that anti-clericalism
and the fervent defense of Catholicism played in shaping the revolutionary state if we could get at the underlying impulses and anxieties that drove these acts.
Let me say at once that I intend no simple-minded anti-clericalism
towards any sect.