According to studies, DBP has been shown to cause proliferation of breast tumor cells and to make anti-estrogen
treatments less effective against tumors.
In other tissue, including vaginal tissue, tamoxifen has been reported to exert an estrogen-like response on vaginal cytology by a mechanism yet to be understood and not expected based upon its an anti-estrogen
substance is used in fertility treatments and is employed by men to accelerate testosterone production.
We are concerned about using vaginal estrogen in women who have had aromatase inhibitor (Al) therapy; their estrogen levels are so low that absorbing even a small amount might make a difference in terms of effectiveness of AL For women who need more than lubricants or vaginal moisturizers, particularly those taking anti-estrogen
therapy (aromatase therapy), the use of low-dose vaginal hormones may be considered on an individual basis, but should include the oncologist in decision making.
In an analysis of lymph node negative HR+ patients, BCI classified 51.5% of patients across the spectrum of intermediate genomic risk scores and patient age as high risk for late (beyond five years) distant recurrence, indicating a need to continue anti-estrogen
treatment to 10 years.
These findings may make these difficult-to-treat-cancers easier to destroy by anti-estrogen
Compared with 2OH[E.sub.1], which can act as an anti-estrogen
, 16alphaOH[E.sub.1] is extremely estrogenic; and in cell culture studies, it caused estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells to multiply.
Utilization of anti-estrogen
intervention inhibits the growth of ovarian carcinoma in vitro and in vivo (10,11).
As the gene product of CYP19, aromatase can act on androstenedione generated from the adrenal cortex of adipose tissues to form estrone and testos terone in ovarian tissues to produce androstenedione, and then transform a part of androstenedione into estrone.15,16 Theoretically, LE may be superior to CC because it has no peripheral anti-estrogen
Although this approach is suggested by the literature to be an effective strategy, currently there are no established guidelines applicable to the use of anti-estrogen
receptor drugs or prevention in the clinical setting [1,2].
The sections were rinsed with 1X rinse buffer and then incubated with primary antibody, mouse anti-estrogen
receptor monoclonal antibody (1:100, Chemicon International Temecula, Canada) for 24 h at 4 [degrees]C, then with secondary antibody, biotinylated goat anti-mouse IgG for ER (Chemical International, USA) for 10 min.
Estrogen receptor [alpha] (ER[alpha]) is overexpressed in over half of all breast cancers and about 70% of the patients respond to anti-estrogen
drugs such as tamoxifen (Ali and Coombes, 2000).