In her study of women antimilitarists at the turn of the twentieth century, Mirella Scriboni brings to light the heretofore-undocumented history of women's involvement in the antimilitarist movement of that time.
However, these male voices, despite the fact that they were given legitimacy through membership in the patriarchal intellectual establishment, did not drown out those of feminists and antimilitarists during this period of "guerra generale.
Although organizational continuity was minimal, and while the Great War largely destroyed the peace strategies of socialist antimilitarists
and most socialist internationalists, alternative peace concepts survived the cataclysm on 1914-1918.
When Roosevelt spurned Konoye's efforts, "power passed to Tojo's militaristic faction," leading on to war; and in April, 1945, "the Emperor substituted a group of civilian antimilitarists
[headed once more by Konoye] for the militarist ministry" --but again Konoye's overtures for peace were rejected.
See ILENE ROSE FEINMAN, CITIZENSHIP RITES: FEMINIST SOLDIERS & FEMINIST ANTIMILITARISTS
(New York University Press 2000).
The radical Left did rail to prevent the outbreak of international war in 1914, as Miller willingly concedes, but he also points out that prewar antimilitarists realized impressive successes in other arenas, particularly in rallying the working class around issues of military and social justice.
Not only did antimilitarists distinguish their movement from the "bourgeois" pacifist organizations that preached international arbitration and global disarmament, they also fought amongst themselves over strategy and ideology.
In uniquely French fashion, the antimilitarists benefited from the democratic political culture of the period that led to a proliferation of journals and newspapers that transmitted the antimilitarist message to the public, while enduring government surveillance and repression that was mild compared to the situation in Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary, where antimilitarist activity was severely punished.
Miller's argument that the anti-militarists journeyed down the road from revolutionaries to citizens is best expressed by his insistence that high-profile events (the Dreyfus Affair being only one of many) fixed public attention on the antimilitarist message and placed the antimilitarists as the defenders of the revolutionary tradition of social and political justice.
Strongly opposed by the Pentagon as well as antimilitarists
, Smith's legislation died in committee and has yet to be reintroduced in Congress.
As noted in The Nation (1999), the Kosovo crisis creates a profound dilemma for principled antimilitarists who do not wish to turn a blind eye to ethnic cleansing, with the corollary creation of a mass of powerless stateless persons, but cannot embrace the NATO air war.
In the United States, antimilitarists and the Left failed to move effectively against U.