29) In accordance with the Comintern tactic after the Fourth World Congress of 1922, various leftist tendencies in the industrial and colonial world--such as leftist social democrats, antimilitarists
, and nationalists from (semi-) colonized countries--were invited to join their international front against imperialism.
In her study of women antimilitarists
at the turn of the twentieth century, Mirella Scriboni brings to light the heretofore-undocumented history of women's involvement in the antimilitarist
movement of that time.
Although organizational continuity was minimal, and while the Great War largely destroyed the peace strategies of socialist antimilitarists
and most socialist internationalists, alternative peace concepts survived the cataclysm on 1914-1918.
When Roosevelt spurned Konoye's efforts, "power passed to Tojo's militaristic faction," leading on to war; and in April, 1945, "the Emperor substituted a group of civilian antimilitarists
[headed once more by Konoye] for the militarist ministry" --but again Konoye's overtures for peace were rejected.
See ILENE ROSE FEINMAN, CITIZENSHIP RITES: FEMINIST SOLDIERS & FEMINIST ANTIMILITARISTS
(New York University Press 2000).
The radical Left did rail to prevent the outbreak of international war in 1914, as Miller willingly concedes, but he also points out that prewar antimilitarists
realized impressive successes in other arenas, particularly in rallying the working class around issues of military and social justice.
Yet if radical antimilitarists
were to carry on their advocacy of a new internationalism to replace the nation-state, they would have to establish some kind of protection from the very authority they sought to displace.
In uniquely French fashion, the antimilitarists
benefited from the democratic political culture of the period that led to a proliferation of journals and newspapers that transmitted the antimilitarist
message to the public, while enduring government surveillance and repression that was mild compared to the situation in Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary, where antimilitarist
activity was severely punished.
Strongly opposed by the Pentagon as well as antimilitarists
, Smith's legislation died in committee and has yet to be reintroduced in Congress.
faced similar charges as far back as World War I.
The laws of war, or international humanitarian law, are not the work of pacifists or even antimilitarists
, and are designed on the basis of mutual benefit, like the rules governing the treatment accorded POWs.
As noted in The Nation (1999), the Kosovo crisis creates a profound dilemma for principled antimilitarists
who do not wish to turn a blind eye to ethnic cleansing, with the corollary creation of a mass of powerless stateless persons, but cannot embrace the NATO air war.