agents may improve the quality of M-CT in elective conditions (33,34).
Finney-type  (side-to-side antiperistaltic
) and Michelassi  (side-to-side isoperistaltic) strictureplasties have been widely used for strictures longer than 10 cm, with very good results [48-50].
Although laparoscopic total gastrectomy has developed relatively slowly because of technical difficulties , intracorporeal side-to-side reconstruction based on an antiperistaltic
approach ("functional end-to-end anastomosis" ) or an isoperistaltic approach ("overlap anastomosis" ) is now performed.
Patients were asked to refrain from voiding for 30 minutes before the procedure, and an antiperistaltic
drug (10 mg butylscopolamine (Buscopan), Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany) was injected intramuscularly just before imaging.
Real-time observation will demonstrate antiperistaltic
waves proximal to obstruction.
DISCUSSION: The term retrograde intussusception (invagination) was first introduced by John Hunter to define an invagination of the intussusceptum in an antiperistaltic
or a proximal direction as opposed to the usual peristaltic or distal direction.
If food stays in the oesophagus for the same reason, antiperistaltic
movements can be activated and food will be returned to the pharynx.
agents, which can obscure symptoms and precipitate toxic megacolon.
medications should be avoided if possible.
drugs, antidiarrheals, and opiates are contraindicated in patients with C.
waves can also be produced and are quite common in crayfish hindgut; in mammals, however, they are more common in the proximal colon and more anterior regions of the alimentary canal (Winlow and Laverack, 1972b; Muramoto, 1981; Bedrich and Ehrlein, 2001).
The following surgical procedures have so far been performed in small groups of patients, with limited success: interposition of antiperistaltic
small-bowel segment or of colon, construction of valve mechanisms, lengthening procedures and electrical retrograde small-bowel stimulation.