It has been known that the cystine/glutamate antiporter
is a plasma membrane-bound protein critically involved in glutamatergic transmission.
Cloning and Characterization of a Ca2+/H+ Antiporter
from Halophyte Suaeda salsa L.
The ATPases generate a proton electrochemical gradient across the vacuolar membrane Na+/H+ antiporter
, to compartmentalize Na+ into the vacuole (Chinnusamy et al.
AX09 is a virus-like particle that displays a portion of the extracellular domain of the cystine-glutamate antiporter
system protein xCT (SLC7A11), which has been found to be overexpressed in cancer stem cells which have unique biological properties that represent a key cellular reservoir for relapse, metastatic progression, and therapeutic resistance.
In serpentine-intolerant Arabidopsis thaliana, an induced loss of function mutation in the [Ca.sup.2+]- [H.sup.+] antiporter
, CAX1, enhances survival on soils with a low calcium to magnesium ratio (Bradshaw, 2005).
Skulachev, "Participation of ATP/ADP antiporter
in oleate- and oleate hydroperoxide-induced uncoupling suppressed by GDP and carboxyatractylate," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol.
According to one recent study, glutamate inhibits the xCT glutamatecystine antiporter
, leading to intracellular cysteine depletion.
Magnesium efflux involves several exchanges including [Na.sup.+]/[Mg.sup.2+], [Ca.sup.2+]/[Mg.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+]/[Mg.sup.2+] antiporter
, and [Cl.sup.-]/[Mg.sup.2+] cotransporter .
Using the purified YiiP protein, zinc efflux occurs via a [Zn.sup.2+]/[H.sup.+] antiporter
System xc(-) cystine/ glutamate antiporter
: an update on molecular pharmacology and roles within the CNS.