Wang, "Ins and outs of major facilitator superfamily antiporters
," Annual Review of Microbiology, vol.
The existence of the mitochondrial [Ca.sup.2+] uniporter, which dynamically buffers physiological [Ca.sup.2+] concentrations in mitochondria, has been confirmed in this shrimp species (data not shown); however, to date there is no information that confirms the existence of proteins such as calcium antiporters
either 2[N.sub.a+] or 2[H.sub.+] in crustaceans.
It is believed that this sequestration of sodium ions is attained by tonoplast Na+/H+ antiporters
(Flowers and Colmer, 2008) and pyrophosphatase (Guo et al., 2006; Krebs et al., 2010).
Sychrova, "Heterologous expression of mammalian Na/H antiporters
in Saccharomyces cerevisiae," Biochimica etBiophysica Acta--General Subjects, vol.
Two additional antiporters
are suggested to play an important role with respect to mitochondrial [Ca.sup.2+] release/ efflux [51, 57].
To date, it has been revealed that secondary transporters, including uniporters, symporters, and antiporters
, facilitate tolerance to salt stress through the transportation of a number of ions and secondary metabolic substrates across cytoplasmic or internal membranes in a variety of organisms.
Sequestration of [Na.sup.+] into the vacuole depends on the [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporters
activity and phosphatases such as V-type [H.sup.+]--ATP and [H.sup.+]--PPase (Chinnusamy et al.
These include plasma membrane ion channels and transporters, including non-electrogenic symporters and antiporters
Phylogenetic analysis of some [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporters
from various plants showed that KvSOS1 formed a cluster with other plant plasma membrane SOS1 homologues and is most closely related to the Theobroma cacao homologue (GenBank accession EOY01238.1), which was different from the cluster of plant vacuolar NHX1 homologues (Figures 4 and 5).
Studies (26,27) indicate that apo E may play a role in regulating calcium homeostasis, and therefore impacting neuronal regulation of various ion-independent receptors, including K+ antiporters
. Apo E plays a vital role in modulation of neurotransmitter release/sequestration, including the enhancement of glutamate uptake and prevents excitotoxicity (28,29).
Tables summarize clinical trials with drugs targeting ionic channels, antiporters
, and pumps in ischemic stroke.