The remaining 5% of the zooplankton community was composed of cladocerans, ostracods, doliolids, polychaete larvae, medusae, fish eggs, ctenophores, salps, cephalopod paralarvae, bivalves, isopods, appendicularians
, pyrosomes, mysiids, heteropods and echinoderms larvae, stomatopods and cirripeds.
Between the zooplankton groups, the appendicularians
showed an association with high values of precipitation, salinity and temperature.
Evidence from 18S rDNA shows that the stolidobranch tunicates may also be closely related to the appendicularians
, which include the pelagic oikopleurid tunicates that build mucous houses (2-4).
Additionally, an important percentage of juvenile appendicularians
was collected (4.
In contrast, the appendicularians
, represented by Oikopleura dioica, retain the larval body form with notochord and dorsal nerve cord into adulthood.
Among holoplankton, chaetognaths and appendicularians
are circumglobal filter-feeding organisms, second in abundance to copepods in marine zooplankton (Gorsky and Fenaux, 1998).
small copepods species, appendicularians
and cladocerans) while in shelf waters large zooplankters constitute their food (e.
These animals include some radiolarmans and foraminifera, as well as medusae, siphonophores, ctenophores, chaetognaths, pteropods, heteropods, appendicularians
, salps, doliolids, and pyrosomes (e.
6% were gelatinous and semi-gelatinous (jellyfish, siphonophores, ctenophores, chaetognaths, salps, appendicularians
, polychaetes, nemertins) and the remaining 0.
A great variety of products from animal origin such as discarded exoskeletons from crustaceans, "houses" of appendicularians
and excretions in the form of fecal pellets, metabolic by-products from fish or gelatinous material from the reefs themselves also contribute importantly (Vidal 1980, Fenaux 1985).
planktophilus, like appendicularians
and amphioxus (Ruppert et al.