Exposure to areca nut (Areca catechu) containing products with or without tobacco is currently believed to lead to OSF (Oral Submucous Fibrosis) in individuals with genetic immunologic or nutritional predisposition to the diseased or from recurrent trauma from betel quid/betel nut chewing or due effects of arecoline
leads to sub mucosal fibrosis.
Chronic abuse of pan which contain its ingredients areca nut an alkaloid called Arecoline
and flavonoid cause conditions like submucous fibrosis and leukoplakia which are pre-cancerous conditions.
Muscarine, pilocarpine and arecoline
are the naturally occurring muscarinic agonists.
The most commonly used ingredients in these products include alkaline agents such as slaked lime, calcium carbonate, alkaline ashes that boost the potential of hydrogen (pH) of product readily enhancing the absorption of nicotine through mucous membrane.19 In addition, most STPs contain areca nut rich in arecoline
which enhances the addictive property of a product as it acts on the same receptors in brain as nicotine.20 In terms of production, STPs are either premade or custom-made products.
Roles of keratinocyte inflammation in oral cancer: regulating the prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and TNF-[alpha] production of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract and arecoline
Separation of polyphenols and arecoline
from areca nut (Areca catechu L.) by solvent extraction, its antioxidant activity, and identification of polyphenols.
The keywords (or subject terms) extracted from the 788 articles included the following: squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, areca nut, expression, tobacco, oral submucous fibrosis, cigarette smoking, arecoline
, carcinogenesis, alcohol, India, p53, leukoplakia, lesions, epithelial cell, and esophageal cancer, which had significant correlations with emphasis on such vital keywords as squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, areca nut, and expression [Figure 3].
(26) investigated the ranches, took medical histories of the families, tested the onsite dogs for taeniids through arecoline
purging, and tested live sheep serum for evidence of infection.
Medications like cromolyn, amlexanox, phenothiazine, statins, propofol, arecoline
, niclosamide, paquinimod, and sulindac decrease the activity of S100A4 protein [15, 16].
Screening for Echinococcus granulosus in dogs: Comparison between arecoline
purgation, coproELISA and coproPCR with necropsy in pre-patent infections.
It has been reported that total alkaloids content of SA is approximately 0.3-0.7% , mainly arecoline
, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine.
Overview of the Carcinogenesis of Arecoline