Were First Residents of What Is Now City of Mitchell," March 10, 1956; clipping from an unknown newspaper in the collection of the Mitchell Area Historical Society, Prehistorical Indian Village folder, Federal Writer's Project, "Mitchell, South Dakota: An Industrial and Recreational Guide," (Works Progress Administration, and the Mitchell Chamber of Commerce, 1938), 29-30; E.E.
In particular, the smallpox epidemic of 1780-82 marked a turning point in the struggles between westward-expanding Sioux groups and the semisedentary tribes that lived along the upper Missouri in present-day North and South Dakota, the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras
. By causing much greater population losses and discord among the semisedentary villagers than the more mobile Sioux peoples, this outbreak enabled western Sioux groups to become the most influential Native power on the northeastern Plains by the time that the United States purchased that region in 1803.
, and Assiniboines, alarmed by the large group of white intruders, attacked and threatened the expedition several times.
These were Mandans, Hidatsas and Arikaras
(Sahnish), known collectively today as the Three Affiliated Tribes.
He worked with the Sioux, the Arikaras
, and the Blackfeet but above all, of course, with his own people, the Crows.
In South Dakota, the men discovered pronghorns and prairie dogs, had their first meetings with the Yanktons, Tetons, and Arikaras
, hiked the infamous Spirit Mound, and witnessed bison herds numbering in the thousands and river bluffs that appeared to be on fire.
Citing the example of the femur, studies have been reported on various populations including the Finns (Lofgren 1956); French (Godycki 1957); Japanese (Hanihara 1958); Australian aborigines (Davivongs 1963); English (Steel 1972); American blacks, whites, and Indians (Black 1978; DiBennardo and Taylor 1979 and 1982; Iscan and Miller-Shaivitz 1984 and 1986); Italians (Pettener 1979); Czechs (Cerny and Komenda 1980); prehistoric Scottish (MacLaughlin and Bruce 1985); archeological remains of Sudanese Nubians, Pecos Pueblo Indians, and Arikaras
(France 1988); Chinese (Liu 1989; Iscan and Shihai 1995); Spanish (Trancho et al.
It rewrote the balance of power for the Plains Indians, decimating the village-dwelling Arikaras
and Mandans and allowing the nomadic Sioux to seize control of the prairie.
Smith began tangling with Indians in 1823, distinguishing himself in a fight with the Arikaras
. He barely survived two massacres by Mojaves (1827) in California and Kelawatsets (1828) in Oregon.
Crows and Arikaras
fought the Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho under the various commands of Generals Custer, Crook, Howard and Terry.
In the same vein, the Hidatsas, Arikaras
, Pawnees, and other peoples of the Great Plains region developed comfortable, spacious, and durable "underground" housing techniques that were both extremely energy efficient and ideally suited to the tornado-ridden climate in which they lived.(41) Today, after a long hiatus brought about by their conquerors' insistence that grossly inefficient and vulnerable above-ground construction represented a superior mode of building on the plains, subsurface or "partially submerged" building designs are making a comeback at the hands of some of the more "radical" and "innovative" Eurocentric architects.
Now, two years later, previously friendly Indians (variously known as the Arikaras
, Riccarces, or simply Rees) had turned hostile and were doing their best to annihilate General Ashley's men.