Arnold Joseph Toynbee

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Noun1.Arnold Joseph Toynbee - English historian who studied the rise and fall of civilizations looking for cyclical patterns (1889-1975)
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According to Arnold J. Toynbee, a British historian, every civilisation is subject to both rise and fall.
Although the United States is the first democracy to exert global influence and enjoy an unprecedented level of wealth and military prowess, it is no exception to what the late British historian Arnold J. Toynbee described as the "Rise & Fall" of empires.
Polly Toynbee, president of the British Humanist Association, honorary associate of the National Secular Society, and granddaughter of the historian Arnold J. Toynbee, wrote a merciless op-ed in the Guardian.