Riemen is on common ground with Arnold Toynbee
, who argued that civilizations would fall, not because it was inevitable, but because governing elites would not respond adequately to changing circumstances, or because they would focus only on their own interests.
To be sure, universal history, the attempt to provide a single overarching story of the past, received considerable popular attention in the mid-twentieth century with massive multivolume projects by the likes of Arnold Toynbee
and Will and Ariel Durant.
More precisely, the book superimposes Jungian psychological archetypes onto the view, drawn from historians such as Arnold Toynbee
, that history follows predictable, recurring patterns.
He has written and lectured widely on Buddhism, humanism, and ethics, and he has published dialogues with global figures such as Arnold Toynbee
, Linus Pauling, and Mikhail Gorbachev.
It is true that civilisations clash, and have clashed ever since human time became time, as Arnold Toynbee
, in his monumental, 12-volume A Study of History (published between 1934 and 1961), and our own historiographer Ibn Khaldun, in his equally monumental Muqaddimah (published around 1387), averred.
The authors rely on the historical concept of Arnold Toynbee
, especially on his formula 'call-and-answer'.
The second author was the British historian Arnold Toynbee
, who in a 1948 essay drew a parallel between the Jews of Jesus' time and Muslims in his day.
The visitors included anthropologist Clive Kluckhohn in 1952, zoologist Julian Huxley in 1953 and historian Arnold Toynbee
In 1970, historian Arnold Toynbee
had the following to say about India's role in contemporary history.
toured the project at Lashkar Gah and reported it "has become a piece of America inserted into the Afghan landscape .
Redemption in history" was a recurring expression in Lonergan's earlier writings, and in this light he read in some depth authors such as Arnold Toynbee
, Christopher Dawson, and later Wilhelm Dilthey.
Professor Arnold Toynbee
introduced his 12-volume masterpiece with 'A Study of History', which convincingly describes how in the last 500 years the whole face of the globe, together with its air envelope, has been knit together physically by the amazing advance of technology, but Mankind, even neighbours, have not yet been united politically, and we are all still strangers to each other in our local ways of life, inherited from times before the recent annihilation of distance.