Holoprosencephaly, encephalocele, myelomeningocele, dysplastic calvaria, agenesis of the corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly, Arnold-Chiari malformation
, omphalocele, gastroschisis, low nasal bridge, exophthalmia, heart defects, and renal agenesis are the other described associated abnormalities (7,11).
(type 1) causes the lowest part of the back of the brain to extend into the spinal canal.
The Arnold-Chiari malformation
is a congenital anomaly, in which the cerebellar tonsils and the lower brain-stem herniate into the cervical canal.
Neuropathic arthropathy caused by Arnold-Chiari malformation
These findings suggest that not only the Arnold-Chiari malformation
but also the cardiac operation may have contributed to the development of scoliosis in the patient described in our case 2.
He was born with the condition Arnold-Chiari Malformation
, which is where the lower part of the brain, that deals with co-ordination, pushes down into the spine.
We excluded the patients who had undergone cervical or cranio-cerebral operations, who were diagnosed with Arnold-Chiari malformation
, who were unable to stand unassisted, or whose MRI images were unclear.
Sure enough, tests revealed that little Noah from Flint also had rare Arnold-Chiari malformation
, where spinal fluid is blocked because the brain has grown in to the space where the spinal cord passes through at the base of the skull.
The etiology may be congenital as in Arnold-Chiari malformation
, or acquired as in brain tumors or intraventricular hemorrhage.
With SBM, what one sees on the back is the tip of the iceberg as these patients invariably have a Chiari II malformation (often incorrectly referred to as the Arnold-Chiari malformation
), typical features of which are cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum and brainstem distortion (Fig.
Headache spectrum in Arnold-Chiari malformation
. Headache 1991; 31:151-155.
Keywords: Arnold-Chiari malformation
, Chiari malformation, hindbrain herniation, quality of life, syringomyelia, syrinx