artificial chromosome

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Related to Artificial chromosomes: Yeast artificial chromosome, expression vector

artificial chromosome

n.
A large sequence of DNA, such as a human artificial chromosome or a bacterial artificial chromosome, that is constructed in a laboratory to function like a chromosome or inserted into a cell to be replicated and expressed. Artificial chromosomes have been used in gene mapping and in modeling genetic diseases.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The widespread use of yeast artificial chromosomes as cloning vectors, has created a demand for reliable method to recover intact chromosomal DNA from preparative pulsed field gels.
The performance principle of array-CGH is basically the same as m-CGH with the difference being the use of a platform-array containing immobilized DNA fragments cloned with various vectors (bacterial artificial chromosome, yeast artificial chromosomes or P1-derived artificial chromosome), instead of metaphase chromosomes [20].
The use of human artificial chromosomes overcomes both of these problems by providing a new chromosome in addition to the ones that already exist in the cells of the subject.
Artificial chromosomes is important for the synthetic life-forms that scientists expects to design for a range of applications, including industrial manufacture of new types of medicines and drugs for human and animal medicine, capability to generate new types of microbes with genetic codes that could generate cheaper ways to use crude oil as automotive fuel or create improved medicines without having harmful side effects.
According to scientists, a synthetic yeast that has man-made chromosomes could eventually be used as a platform for making new kinds of biological materials, like antibiotics or vaccines, while human artificial chromosomes can be used to introduce healthy copies of genes into the diseased organs or tissues of people with genetic illnesses, scientists said.
Among specific topics are the mutagenesis of the repeat regions of herpesviruses cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes, insertion and deletion mutagenesis by overlap extension of polymerase chain reactions, using peptide loop insertion mutagenesis for the evolution of proteins, and an easy two-step method for randomizing and cloning gene fragments.
Abbreviations: BAC, bacterial artificial chromosomes; BAC-FISH, fluo-rescently labeled bacterial artificial chromosome in situ hybridization; DAPI, 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; FISH, fluorescent in situ hybridization; FSW, filtered seawater; PABA.
Genome-wide copy number profiling on high-density bacterial artificial chromosomes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and oligonucleotide microarrays: a platform comparison based on statistical power analysis.
We have also developed the capabilities of producing arrays that utilize bacterial artificial chromosomes on our arrays, also enabling genetic analysis.
For this purpose, libraries based on the bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC; Shizuya et al., 1992) have become the choice for genomic library construction and are routinely used in forward genetics approaches in the model plant Arabidopsis (Peters et al., 2003).
Three bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC-E7, BAC-22, BAC-C8) located in a breakpoint fragment from AF4 (on chromosome 4) were investigated in a similar manner.