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The immediate astroglial cell destruction caused by the expanding hematoma is assumed to be responsible for the rapid GFAP release into the intravasal blood in acute ICH (8).
Three weeks after the injection, the striatal DA level was reduced to 17% of the control level by the MPTP treatment [31], whereas 42% of the [TH.sup.+] neurons in the SNpc and 14% of [TH.sup.+] fibers (by density assay) in the striatum were preserved and the astroglial cell count increased [30].
This ependymal loss appears much earlier than the increase of intracranial pressure and the ventriculomegaly and is therefore the first recognizable event in hydrocephalus pathology, and this is accompanied by a microglial and astroglial cell reaction; the subependymal astroglial cells respond by proliferation in such a way that they form a glial scar-like covering of the ventricular surface to replace the ependymal epithelium [12, 13].
Astroglial cell cultures were characterized at 14 days in vitro (DIV), which is confluent, by immunofluorescent staining with GFAP [13].
Alterations in BBB permeability were accompanied by profound changes in cell shape to astroglial cell lines or primary glial cells, via an incompletely understood receptor mechanism [15].
Several researchers have reported the production of members of the neurotrophin family such as NGF, BDNF, and neurotrophin-3 in the cultured astroglial cell lines (Moretto et al., 1994; Oderfeld-Nowak et al., 1992).
Despite treatment with soluble CD4, the AIDS virus was still able to invade a type of brain cell called an astroglial cell. So soluble CD4 may not be able to prevent AIDS-related dementias.
GFAP is a highly brain-specific intermediate filament protein maintaining astroglial cell structure and migration (12).
Protective effect of carnosine during nitrosative stress in astroglial cell cultures.
"The role of Foxg1 in this transition process and its involvement in disorders such as the variants of the Rett and West syndrome suggests that some of the anomalies typical of these syndromes are generated by an alteration of the time scale with which the astroglial cells are generated and opens the way to possible gene therapies."
Astroglial cells were observed delineating the graft with their processes, sometimes sending longer projections inside the graft core.
Yeh et al., "Small molecules efficiently reprogram human astroglial cells into functional neurons," Cell Stem Cell, vol.