to stop hinging back at the neck, but rather be "long" in the neck) (6, 19, 20) to decompress the SA and IJV, as well as with strengthening exercises for the deep neck flexors, extensors and scapular elevators (6) to ameliorate the atlantal
The current literature highlights injuries involving the transverse atlantal
ligament , and tectorial membrane injuries have been reported ; however, injuries to the posterior atlantoaxial ligament are not widely published.
The posterior arch of the atlas forms about 3/5th of the atlantal
For all pigs, inspection of the head involved removal and thin slicing (1-3 mm) of the submaxillary, parotid, retropharyngeal, and atlantal
lymph nodes and the oropharyngeal tonsils.
ligament disruption associated with odontoid fractures.
Ligaments stabilizing the atlantoaxial junction (C1-C2 joint), which are shown in Figure 1, include the tectorial membrane, the cranial extension of the posterior longitudinal ligament that limits axial distraction; the alar ligaments, which transfix the dens to the occipital condyles to restrain rotational motion; and the transverse atlantal
ligament (TAL), which restricts the dens from impacting the cord in flexion.
The pedicle screw on atlas was placed at the intersection point, and it was about 20 mm beside the midpoint of atlantal
posterior tubercle and 1-2mm superior to the inferior edge of posterior arch.
Lee, "The incidence and clinical implications of congenital defects of atlantal
arch," Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society, vol.
It extends from the atlantal
fossa to the basihyoid bone so that it is partly covered by the parotid gland (ELLENPORT, 1986; DYCE et al., 2004).
To perform this procedure successfully, the transverse atlantal
ligament must be intact, and the fracture must be adequately reduced; reduction is verified by using fluoroscopy in the operating room.