Cement is siliciferous, the growth of authigenic
quartz around detrital quartz grains is very common.
clay mineral cements in Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstones of Alberta.
Argillaceous silt-stone had a high content of terrigenous detrital minerals and the interstitial materials were mainly made up of clay minerals and some amount of authigenic
However, there is uncertainty regarding a) whether the geochemical system is open or closed during diagenesis in sedimentary basins (Bjorkum & Gjelsvik, 1988; Bjorlykke & Jahren, 2010; Gluyas&Coleman, 1992; Sullivan et al., 1990; Worden & Barclay, 2000; Usman et al., 2018), and b) the origin and formation process of authigenic
minerals, including clay minerals, and carbonate and quartz cements in sandstone (Barclay & Worden, 2000; Dowey, 2012;Worden & Morad, 2000).
In the two uppermost samples, only crystals of authigenic
gypsum are entirely observed (Fig.
On the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, the seep sites known as Mound 11, Mound 12 and Jaco Scar are characterized by chemosynthethic macrofauna (clams, mussels, tube worms), authigenic
carbonate rocks, and fine sediments (Furi et al., 2010).
Wang, "Climatic implication of authigenic
minerals formed during pedogenic weathering processes," Earth Science, vol.
The samples contained a lot of honeycomb and flaky illite and smectite mixed layer, a small amount of needle-like chlorite and flake-flocculent chlorite and smectite mixed layer, and authigenic
polyhedral quartz and strip albite crystal existing in particles.
Burley, "Distribution and origin of authigenic
minerals in the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group, UK," Clay Mineralogy, vol.
Some organic-rich rocks are enriched in authigenic
uranium and hence they can be more radioactive (Schmoker, 1981; Meyer and Nederlof, 1984; Mann et al, 1986; Wignall and Myers, 1988; Stocks and Lawrence, 1990; Liming and Kolonie, 2003).
Both of these scenarios suggest that the clay minerals at these sites are likely "authigenic
," meaning they formed in place sometime after impact occurred, rather than being excavated from underground.
Crush resistance of frac sand is dependent upon hardness of grain; grain crystallinity; absence of weak planes that could have developed during tectonism; absence of deep pitting of grains, and absence of authigenic
overgrowths on quartz grains (Zdunczyk, 2007), To reduce the presence of weaker grains, the ISO 13503-2 proppants standard for percent clusters is [less than or equal to] 1.0.