For line 1, the axial stress
varying with time and location is sketched in Fig.
Prediction of Torsioned Solid and Hollow Cylindrical Bars
Therefore, the impact of the compression level (axial stress
) on particle size distribution and permeability should be investigated.
The axial stress
and strain are recorded, and the peak strength ([q.sub.u]), strength of axial strain 15% ([q.sub.a]), residual strength ([q.sub.r]), axial strain of failure ([[epsilon].sub.f]), elasticity modulus (E), and failure modulus ([E.sub.f]) are measured.
FBG sensors are also applied to monitor the axial stress
of rock bolts throughout the process of constructing underground tunnels by utilizing pilot models and investigating the load transfer principle of the ground anchor and tensile force distribution along the tendon [11, 12].
Coordinate system II: the origin point is [O.sub.2], which reflects the relationship between the cemented sand axial stress
[[sigma]'.sub.1] and strain [[epsilon]'.sub.1] with only skeleton deformation.
This is due to the axial stress
and not all forces are taken into the calculation of the analytical model.
The spheroidal graphite distribution wholly or partially on matrix depends on type of component application like axial stress
, bending stress, reverse bending stress or torsional stress determines the life of component.
The experiments showed that the addition of a static axial stress
to cyclic torsion induces more damaging .
The average axial stress
on the cross section of the tubular string due to axial force is calculated by
Constant axial stress
in each steel bar was 100 kN and there were six posttensioning bars in every column.
As for comminuted fractures, especially in weight-bearing bone, axial stress
easily leads to a transversal shift of bone blocks .