However, even though significant clusters represent a spatially unconstrained information about "how" BOLD fMRI
activity is different across groups or in relation to a given variable (e.g., age), they do not specify whether, for instance, the connectivity profile of cluster A (e.g., located in the right temporal lobe) is different in patients and controls because of its decreased connectivity with a specific other region of the brain, or multiple others, or an entire hemisphere, and so on.
Kable, "The valuation system: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of BOLD fMRI
experiments examining neural correlates of subjective value," NeuroImage, vol.
Correlation coefficients between the brain regions were calculated using BOLD fMRI
Clinical BOLD fMRI
and DTI: Artifacts, Tips, and Tricks.
And the scanner's submillimeter BOLD fMRI
contrast increases linearly with field strength; this could translate, in clinical use, to higher resolution in neuro imaging compared to 3T applications.
In meta-analyses of brain imaging studies, majority performed using BOLD fMRI
, we and other authors have previously reported that urinary urgency is associated with activation of several cortical and subcortical regions that comprise the limbic system, that is, region of the brain that processes emotional response to pain and discomfort, such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) [5, 6].
Characterization of regional heterogeneity in cerebrovascular reactivity dynamics using novel hypocapnia task and BOLD fMRI
. Neuroimage 2009; 48: 166-175, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.05.026.
Diffusion MRI and its use in diagnosing strokes, BOLD fMRI
, and the various ways in which the behavior of water in the brain impacts imaging methods are elaborated.
PVE and Its Reduction in BOLD fMRI
. VSI provides a unique alternative for the detection of highly localized activation with a weak BOLD response.
Zhang et al., "Thirty minute transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation modulates resting state brain activities: a perfusion and BOLD fMRI
study," Brain Research, vol.
(199.) See Adelsheim, supra note 97, at 888-95, 908 (discussing BOLD fMRI
and its inherent weaknesses); Brown & Murphy, supra note 48, at 1138-41,1188 (discussing the various layers along the chain of inferences that must be made in order to create an fMRI image and deduce conclusions from it).
In BOLD fMRI
(see later explanation), the most common form of fMRI, a relatively long TE will yield greater changes in functional signal between activation and baseline states, but will also cause greater artifacts near air-tissue interfaces and lessened overall signal intensity.