(16) Even the district's famous gambling bosses (botoh
) came to the same conclusion, as the head of the PKB (Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa, National Awakening Party), Muhammadun, explained:
Gambling on the outcome of village and other elections is a long-established tradition in this part of lava, and big-time gamblers (known as botoh
) sometimes wager huge sums in the process, with ordinary villagers making smaller bets.
The 2017 election, not unlike that in 2011, was run in an atmosphere of intensive money politics, in which both members of the candidates' success teams and gamblers, or botoh
, delivered cash payments varying between 30,000-70,000 rupiah (US$2.25-$5.20) to voters in the lead-up to voting day.