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The distributions of the 4FSK, BPSK, Frank, and Barker signals are more concentrated and have much narrower frequency bandwidths, meaning that they are compact-class distributions.
A frame consisting of LDPC coded bits is sent from the LDPC encoder with all the bits with random values 0 and 1 which has further been BPSK modulated and broadcast to the relays.
Based on that, let [C.sub.WDM] be the channel capacity of BPSK WDM, the number of spectrum slots needed in the conventional WDM network, [NS.sub.WDM] (s, d), can be calculated as,
Chip modulation may be any version of coherent modulations, such as BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK (Phase Shift Keying), but generally, binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is employed.
[S.sub.BPSK]([absolute value of ([f.sub.w] - [f.sub.j])]) is the power spectrum in BPSK modulation, [T.sub.f] is the symbol duration, [f.sub.i] is subcarrier frequency of node i.
SCPC method is similar to that of BPSK, and this method destroys the narrow peak of autocorrelation function (ACF).
where D denotes the data length which is known by the source, and Rbpsk is the data transmission rate of BPSK. The data transmission rate in the OFDMA system can be determined by the number of modulation symbols Ns, number of available sub-carriers k, and sample time [tau].
Different from BPSK, the primary correlation peak of the BOC signal is more narrow than BPSK.
Simulation conditions Simulation I Simulation II Transmitted signal p(k) BPSK BPSK SNR 45 dB 45 dB Pulse magnitude 1 1 Pulse width 5000 2000 Dimension of the equalizer 16 x 2 = 32 16 x 2 = 32 [N.sub.f] Oversampling rate M 2 2 Step size 5 x [10.sup-3] 5 x [10.sup.-3] Table 4: Coefficients of the two channels.
SUs functioning in bands II, IV, VI, and VIII use 32 OFDM subcarriers, mapped with BPSK. The performances of the proposed techniques in terms of PSD with others, including ASW , ACC , CC [7, 8], CC using GA and DE , and GSC , are shown in Figures 6 and 7.
This bitwise computation achieves acceptable accuracy for single-input single-output (SISO) and 2x2 MIMO channels with BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM .
A pair of BPSK symbols is mapped to QPSK constellation with a phase difference of 90[degrees] and 180[degrees] in two different cases.
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