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The process by which genetic material is transferred from one bacterium to another by a sex factor.

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Genes can migrate from one bacteria to another through several avenues 6 they can be passed along by viruses, absorbed directly through a process called transformation, or exchanged through connections in a copulation-like technique called bacterial conjugation.
Most recently, Son et al [48] demonstrated that both resistance and entereotoxigenicity were transferred using bacterial conjugation experiments with antibiotic-resistant isolates of E.
coli cloning and expression vectors, archaeal plasmids, plasmid-based expression systems for mammalian cells, bioinformatics tools and methods for plasmid sequence analysis and annotation, horizontal gene transfer mediated by plasmids, molecular machinery for DNA translocation in bacterial conjugation, plasmids for gene therapy, and plasmid DNA as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for cancer and infectious diseases.