When a redo urethroplasty is required, the degree of postoperative scarring and the possibility of balanitis
xerotica obliterans (BXO) may dictate re-operative management.
High levels of glycosuria induced by SGLT-2 inhibitors increase the risk of genital infections, such as vulvovaginitis and balanitis
. A slight risk increase of urinary tract infections (UTIs) was reported in some studies; other studies found no statistically significant increase of UTI risk in patients receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors compared with placebo.
, an inflammation of the head of the penis possibly due to poor hygiene, but also to thrush.
, which is seen in up to 40% of men with reactive arthritis (ReA), is often painless; hence, its presence is not voluntarily mentioned by patients, unless they are specifically asked about it.
This can cause redness and swelling of the head of your penis, called balanitis
The patient was finally diagnosed as candida balanitis
with hyperplastic plaque.
Based on the history and the physical examination, the differential diagnoses included balanoposthitis, balanitis
, urinary tract infection (UTI), sexually transmitted infection (STI) secondary to possible abuse, hair tourniquet, and foreign body.
and painless ulcerations of the oral cavity are present in 20--40% and 5--10% of cases, respectively.
Other variables related to risk factors (phimosis, smoking, chronic balanoposthitis, poor hygiene, HPV infection, scleroatrophic lichen, cutaneous horn, keratotic balanitis
xerotica obliterans, and leucoplakia) (3,13) were not used in this study due to incomplete data.
Other, less frequent, inflammatory skin conditions evaluated included alopecia areata, miliaria, balanitis
, lichen planus, urticaria, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, among others.
Information obtained from clinic visit and operative notes and were reviewed for: age at first presentation of symptoms, circumcision status, relevant presenting symptoms (ballooning of prepuce, spraying during urination, straining, frequency, urgency, urinary retention, balanitis
and urinary tract infection.), previous medical treatments, intraoperative and post-operative management, description of the lesions in operation room under anesthesia and clinical suspicion of LS, subsequent outcomes and follow up.
4 strictures were posttraumatic, 3 were iatrogenic, 2 were caused by lichen sclerosus (former balanitis
xerotica obliterans), 2 were related to congenital hypospadias while 1 case was considered idiopathic.