The two actors and managers often presented Shakespearean plays and ballad operas
such as The Beggar's Opera, written in 1728 by John Gay with music arranged by Johann Christoph Pepusch.
In act 2, scene 13, the aria 'Thus when the swallow, seeking prey' is specified as to the tune of 'All in the Downs', and Sandoni's tune is printed in all editions of the ballad opera
. Yet other ballad operas
from around this time, such as Charles Johnson's The Village Opera (1729), also have arias sung to the tune of All in the Downs', but print Leveridge's tune.
(1731b: 110) Indeed, while many writers of ballad operas
gradually moved away from incorporating a social message, Fielding maintained that focus so strongly that two of his efforts may have been suppressed by political pressure from above, (2) much as was Gay's sequel to The Beggar's Opera, Polly.
Kitty Clive, who starred in some of Fielding's ballad operas
, had strong views on how best to interpret the script.
Shield, who composed songs, ballad operas
and some string chamber music, would be commissioned to write music for royal occasions.
John Rich's pantomimes and ballad operas
at Lincoln's Inn Fields in the first half of the 18th century had much in common with the Elizabethan jig, while a shrewd theatre manager such as David Garrick would often try to prop up a faltering play with a popular Afterpiece.
Scholars of English and literature, music, and law from Europe and North America explore his writings, including his ballad operas
, poetry, political journalism, social pamphlets, and novels Joseph Andrews, Tom Jones, and Amelia.
Seventeenth century ballad operas
took the idea of grand Italian opera but made them accessible to ordinary folk by setting the lyrics to popular broadsheet ballads, opera arias, church hymns and folk tunes of the day.
He played all the great roles in ballad operas
from Tile Beggar's Opera onwards and, later, commissioned more.
The fourth chapter surveys the staggering array of stage adaptations of Richardson's novel, including not only Henry Giffard's comedy Pamela (1741), the anonymous Pamela; or, Virtue Triumphant (1741), two ballad operas
in 1742, Edward Moore's The Foundling (1748), Isaac Bickerstaff's comic opera The Maid of the Mill (1765), and Samuel Foote's puppet-show farce Piety in Pattens (1773), but also stage adaptations produced in France by Louis de Boissy, Nivelle de La Chaussee, and Voltaire--and in Italy by Carlo Goldoni.
From humble beginnings he became a noted violinist and a prolific composer of songs and ballad operas
. And his operas were the toast of Covent Garden.
No mention is made of musical developments in the early 1800s, such as ballad operas
performed along the east coast, opera in New Orleans, or Moravian music in Pennsylvania.