in the mountain gorges, with the Romans falling like leaves around him; Maccabeus, the Hammer [sic] on the Plains of Eretz Yisroel; Gideon trumpeting in the night--and now you, Zaida, and my father and my sister in a house in Warsaw.
According to Jewish tradition, the ninth of Av was a day when five tragedies befell the Jewish people: not just the destruction of the First Temple by the Babylonians, but also the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans, the return of the dispirited spies sent by Moses to scout out the Promised Land, the failure of the Bar Kochba
revolt, and the plowing of Jerusalem to dust by the Roman general Turnus Rufus.
After the failed second revolt (132 CE), led by Bar Kochba
, the city was renamed Aelia Capitolina in 135 CE and Jews were banned from entering the city.
All the elaborate rites of animal sacrifice could no longer be performed, and even before the collapse of the Bar Kochba
revolt in 135 CE the majority of Jews lived outside Israel.
Judea was renamed Syria Palaestina by the Romans after the Bar Kochba
revolt a century after Christ.
There was one other major Jewish figure of ancient times who was acclaimed by many Jews as the Messiah who would throw out the Romans: Simon Bar Kochba
, who, in fact, expelled the Romans in 132 C.E.
A more credible suggestion, by Salo Baron, is that the change to Palaestina was introduced by Roman Emperor Hadrian in the aftermath of the Bar Kochba
revolt, at about the time he renamed Jerusalem, a position widely accepted today.
A Man, a Jewish strong man, a hero, that's what he thought he might be, a Bar Kochba
, a Judah Maccabee.
Beitar, a reference to the Jews' last standing fortress in the second century Bar Kochba
revolt against the Romans, was established in 1923 in Latvia.
This intention of Hadrian, if it ever existed, of having the Jerusalem Temple rebuilt, disappeared with the Bar Kochba
Messianic revolt of A.D.
The rejection of women by the males of Bar Kochba
Zionist sport club led to the creation of Ifftus, which functioned as a pressure for women's integration in the general sport club.
was a tough, G-d fearing Jew whom we remember on Lag Ba'Omer.