The highest frequency found in IndE could be justified, at least partially, as a result of basilectal
influence, as has been pointed out by Sharma (2009) in her analysis of the progressive co-occurring with stative verbs.
246), dos criollos independientes se hablan en estos paises: uno basilectal
o rural y uno urbano o mesolectal.
These heavily basilectal
lines, with their orthographic elisions and plosive and fricative alliteration, remind readers that dialect verse also requires "wuk"; when Quashie insists that "we dig de row dem eben in a line: McKay is alerting readers to his poetic labor, the labor entailed in putting dialect phrases into fixed verse forms, made of even poetic lines.
Menos positiva es la evaluacion para el ingles criollo limonense, sobre el cual existen descripciones fonologicas y gramaticales detalladas (asi que la descripcion se valoraria como buena), pero no un diccionario publicado ni textos anotados de la variedad basilectal
, con excepcion de cuatro textos sin anotacion recogidos en Britton (2008), de los cuales solo uno se incluye en version digital en el disco compacto que acompana el libro.
The first author used Singlish when conducting the interviews, which is a basilectal
dialect that draws its roots from several Chinese dialects, Malay, Tamil, and English (Chew, 2006).
Through the use of contemporary descriptions and use of the Scots dialect of Shetland, it was concluded that modern Shetland dialect represented the combination of a rather mainstream Scots dialect developed in Shetland with a basilectal
Scots variety created in the first generations after Norn ceased having native speakers in the later eighteenth century, with Norn identity feedback loops maintaining these features longer than might be expected.
in positions usually requiring the subjunctive in historical varieties, Schilling-Estes and Wolfram (1994: 281-282) decided that these tokens should be counted as indicative forms rather than relics of the subjunctive for the three following reasons: (a) the weren't forms were used by islanders who also resorted to nonstandard weren't in clearly indicative contexts, (b) the contexts in which were would have been the expected form these speakers used was instead, (c) half of the weren't forms that could have been subjunctives occurred in the speech of the one most basilectal
speaker; it is indeed highly unlikely that such a speaker would be using forms typical of only the most acrolectal varieties of Standard English.
Due to this relatively recent contact with regional Bolivian Spanish, ABS is undergoing a "change in progress", consisting in the systematic substitution of stigmatized basilectal
ABS features with more prestigious HBS ones.
Diastratic layers of Papiamentu on Curacao have barely been the subject of research, yet Papiamentu speakers intuitively perceive that the Papiamentu spoken on the western side of the island (19) is a more basilectal
variation of the Creole, as compared to that spoken in Willemstad.
Moreover, the bidirectional shifting between Creole English (the basilectal
and mesolectal varieties) and Standard English (the acrolectal variety) creates a continuum space for mixing the Creole-English and the Standard-English varieties in contact.
After his two Kingston collections of poetry McKay never again rendered into verse the basilectal
creole speech of his native home, Clarendon Parish, and police beat, Spanish Town, Kingston.
En un uso muy basilectal
, como en este caso, en la tercera persona no se hace la distincion entre masculino y femenino.