It is nonetheless closer to basilectal
Patwa than the more acrolectal Patwa that leans toward Standard Jamaican English in the songs of other artists, such as Bob Marley, for example.
The highest frequency found in IndE could be justified, at least partially, as a result of basilectal
influence, as has been pointed out by Sharma (2009) in her analysis of the progressive co-occurring with stative verbs.
(lines 21-24) These heavily basilectal
lines, with their orthographic elisions and plosive and fricative alliteration, remind readers that dialect verse also requires "wuk"; when Quashie insists that "we dig de row dem eben in a line: McKay is alerting readers to his poetic labor, the labor entailed in putting dialect phrases into fixed verse forms, made of even poetic lines.
The first author used Singlish when conducting the interviews, which is a basilectal
dialect that draws its roots from several Chinese dialects, Malay, Tamil, and English (Chew, 2006).
Through the use of contemporary descriptions and use of the Scots dialect of Shetland, it was concluded that modern Shetland dialect represented the combination of a rather mainstream Scots dialect developed in Shetland with a basilectal
Scots variety created in the first generations after Norn ceased having native speakers in the later eighteenth century, with Norn identity feedback loops maintaining these features longer than might be expected.
in positions usually requiring the subjunctive in historical varieties, Schilling-Estes and Wolfram (1994: 281-282) decided that these tokens should be counted as indicative forms rather than relics of the subjunctive for the three following reasons: (a) the weren't forms were used by islanders who also resorted to nonstandard weren't in clearly indicative contexts, (b) the contexts in which were would have been the expected form these speakers used was instead, (c) half of the weren't forms that could have been subjunctives occurred in the speech of the one most basilectal
speaker; it is indeed highly unlikely that such a speaker would be using forms typical of only the most acrolectal varieties of Standard English.