Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
be(biː; unstressed bɪ)
be(bi; unstressed bi, bɪ)
v. and auxiliary v., pres. sing. 1st pers. am, 2nd are, 3rd is, pres. pl. are; past sing. 1st pers. was, 2nd were, 3rd was, past pl. were; pres. subj. be; past subj. sing. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pers. were; past subj. pl. were; past part. been; pres. part. be•ing. v.i.
Be is the most common verb in English. It is used in many different ways.
The present tense forms of be are am, are, and is, and the past tense forms are was and were. Be is both an auxiliary and a main verb.
Am, is, and are are not usually pronounced in full. When you write down what someone says, you usually represent am and is using 'm and 's.
You can also represent are using 're, but only after a pronoun.
You can also use the forms 'm, 's and 're when you are writing in a conversational style.
Be is an auxiliary when forming continuous tenses and passives.
In conversation, get is often used to form passives.
You use be as a main verb when you are describing things or people or giving information about them. After be, you use a complement. A complement is either an adjective or a noun group.
When be is followed by a noun group indicating a unique job or position within an organization, you do not have to put 'the' in front of the noun.
Make is sometimes used instead of 'be' to say how successful someone is in a particular job or role. For example, instead of saying 'He will be a good president', you can say 'He will make a good president'.
You can talk about a person's age by using be followed by a number.
You can also use be to say how much something costs.
You can use many kinds of prepositional phrase after be.
You sometimes use to-infinitive clauses after be.
When you use be as a main verb in questions and negative clauses, you do not use the auxiliary 'do'.
Be is not usually a main verb in continuous tenses. However, you can use it in continuous tenses to describe someone's behaviour at a particular time.
Do not confuse be with become. Be is used to indicate that someone or something has a particular quality or nature, or is in a particular situation. Become is used to indicate that someone or something changes in some way.
Be is often used after there to indicate the existence or occurrence of something.
You cannot use be without there to indicate that something exists or happens. You cannot say, for example, 'Another explanation is' or 'Another explanation must be'. You must say 'There is another explanation' or 'There must be another explanation'.
Be is often used after it to describe something such as an experience, or to comment on a situation.
If you have visited a place and have now come back from it, British speakers say that you have been there.
Past participle: been
|Noun||1.||Be - a light strong brittle grey toxic bivalent metallic element|
metal, metallic element - any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc.
beryl - the chief source of beryllium; colored transparent varieties are valued as gems
chrysoberyl - a rare hard yellow green mineral consisting of beryllium aluminate in crystal form; used as a gemstone
|Verb||1.||be - have the quality of being; (copula, used with an adjective or a predicate noun); "John is rich"; "This is not a good answer"|
look - have a certain outward or facial expression; "How does she look?"; "The child looks unhappy"; "She looked pale after the surgery"
be well - be healthy; feel good; "She has not been well lately"
suffer - feel unwell or uncomfortable; "She is suffering from the hot weather"
feel - be conscious of a physical, mental, or emotional state; "My cold is gone--I feel fine today"; "She felt tired after the long hike"; "She felt sad after her loss"
remain, stay, rest - stay the same; remain in a certain state; "The dress remained wet after repeated attempts to dry it"; "rest assured"; "stay alone"; "He remained unmoved by her tears"; "The bad weather continued for another week"
continue - exist over a prolonged period of time; "The bad weather continued for two more weeks"
coruscate, sparkle, scintillate - be lively or brilliant or exhibit virtuosity; "The musical performance sparkled"; "A scintillating conversation"; "his playing coruscated throughout the concert hall"
befuddle, confound, confuse, discombobulate, fox, bedevil, fuddle, throw - be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly; "These questions confuse even the experts"; "This question completely threw me"; "This question befuddled even the teacher"
rank - take or have a position relative to others; "This painting ranks among the best in the Western World"
point - be positionable in a specified manner; "The gun points with ease"
compact, pack - have the property of being packable or of compacting easily; "This powder compacts easily"; "Such odd-shaped items do not pack well"
rest - not move; be in a resting position
cut - allow incision or separation; "This bread cuts easily"
appear, seem, look - give a certain impression or have a certain outward aspect; "She seems to be sleeping"; "This appears to be a very difficult problem"; "This project looks fishy"; "They appeared like people who had not eaten or slept for a long time"
seem, appear - seem to be true, probable, or apparent; "It seems that he is very gifted"; "It appears that the weather in California is very bad"
owe - be in debt; "She owes me $200"; "I still owe for the car"; "The thesis owes much to his adviser"
belong - be owned by; be in the possession of; "This book belongs to me"
cover - be sufficient to meet, defray, or offset the charge or cost of; "Is this enough to cover the check?"
represent - be representative or typical for; "This period is represented by Beethoven"
account - be the sole or primary factor in the existence, acquisition, supply, or disposal of something; "Passing grades account for half of the grades given in this exam"
cut across - be contrary to ordinary procedure or limitations; "Opinions on bombing the Serbs cut across party lines"
begin, start - have a beginning characterized in some specified way; "The novel begins with a murder"; "My property begins with the three maple trees"; "Her day begins with a workout"; "The semester begins with a convocation ceremony"
begin - have a beginning, of a temporal event; "WW II began in 1939 when Hitler marched into Poland"; "The company's Asia tour begins next month"
stand - be in some specified state or condition; "I stand corrected"
go - be or continue to be in a certain condition; "The children went hungry that day"
comprise, consist - be composed of; "The land he conquered comprised several provinces"; "What does this dish consist of?"
prove, turn out, turn up - be shown or be found to be; "She proved to be right"; "The medicine turned out to save her life"; "She turned up HIV positive"
account for - be the reason or explanation for; "The recession accounts for the slow retail business"
remain - be left; of persons, questions, problems, results, evidence, etc.; "There remains the question of who pulled the trigger"; "Carter remains the only President in recent history under whose Presidency the U.S. did not fight a war"
stick by, stand by, adhere, stick - be loyal to; "She stood by her husband in times of trouble"; "The friends stuck together through the war"
|2.||be - be identical to; be someone or something; "The president of the company is John Smith"; "This is my house"|
|3.||be - occupy a certain position or area; be somewhere; "Where is my umbrella?" "The toolshed is in the back"; "What is behind this behavior?"|
stretch, stretch along - occupy a large, elongated area; "The park stretched beneath the train line"
attend, go to - be present at (meetings, church services, university), etc.; "She attends class regularly"; "I rarely attend services at my church"; "did you go to the meeting?"
inhabit, live, populate, dwell - inhabit or live in; be an inhabitant of; "People lived in Africa millions of years ago"; "The people inhabited the islands that are now deserted"; "this kind of fish dwells near the bottom of the ocean"; "deer are populating the woods"
inhabit - be present in; "sweet memories inhabit this house"
keep one's distance, keep one's eyes off, keep one's hands off, stand back, stay away - stay clear of, avoid; "Keep your hands off my wife!"; "Keep your distance from this man--he is dangerous"
extend to, reach, touch - to extend as far as; "The sunlight reached the wall"; "Can he reach?" "The chair must not touch the wall"
extend, run, lead, pass, go - stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point; "Service runs all the way to Cranbury"; "His knowledge doesn't go very far"; "My memory extends back to my fourth year of life"; "The facts extend beyond a consideration of her personal assets"
cover, extend, continue - span an interval of distance, space or time; "The war extended over five years"; "The period covered the turn of the century"; "My land extends over the hills on the horizon"; "This farm covers some 200 acres"; "The Archipelago continues for another 500 miles"
poke out, reach out, extend - reach outward in space; "The awning extends several feet over the sidewalk"
lie - be located or situated somewhere; occupy a certain position
sit - be located or situated somewhere; "The White House sits on Pennsylvania Avenue"
sit around, sit - be around, often idly or without specific purpose; "The object sat in the corner"; "We sat around chatting for another hour"
face - be opposite; "the facing page"; "the two sofas face each other"
straddle - sit or stand astride of
follow - be next; "Mary plays best, with John and Sue following"
center on - have as a center; "The region centers on Charleston"
rest, lie - have a place in relation to something else; "The fate of Bosnia lies in the hands of the West"; "The responsibility rests with the Allies"
belong, go - be in the right place or situation; "Where do these books belong?"; "Let's put health care where it belongs--under the control of the government"; "Where do these books go?"
come - exist or occur in a certain point in a series; "Next came the student from France"
|4.||be - have an existence, be extant; "Is there a God?"|
come - be found or available; "These shoes come in three colors; The furniture comes unassembled"
preexist - exist beforehand or prior to a certain point in time; "Did this condition pre-exist?"
kick about, kick around, knock about - be around; be alive or active; "Does the old man still kick around?"
coexist - exist together
indwell - to exist as an inner activating spirit, force, or principle
consist, lie in, dwell, lie - originate (in); "The problems dwell in the social injustices in this country"
endanger, imperil, jeopardise, jeopardize, menace, peril, threaten - pose a threat to; present a danger to; "The pollution is endangering the crops"
flow - be abundantly present; "The champagne flowed at the wedding"
distribute - be distributed or spread, as in statistical analyses; "Values distribute"
|5.||be - happen, occur, take place; "I lost my wallet; this was during the visit to my parents' house"; "There were two hundred people at his funeral"; "There was a lot of noise in the kitchen"|
|6.||be - be identical or equivalent to; "One dollar equals 1,000 rubles these days!"|
correspond, gibe, jibe, match, tally, agree, fit, check - be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics; "The two stories don't agree in many details"; "The handwriting checks with the signature on the check"; "The suspect's fingerprints don't match those on the gun"
represent, stand for, correspond - take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to; "Because of the sound changes in the course of history, an 'h' in Greek stands for an 's' in Latin"
translate - be equivalent in effect; "the growth in income translates into greater purchasing power"
|7.||be - form or compose; "This money is my only income"; "The stone wall was the backdrop for the performance"; "These constitute my entire belonging"; "The children made up the chorus"; "This sum represents my entire income for a year"; "These few men comprise his entire army"|
make - constitute the essence of; "Clothes make the man"
compose - form the substance of; "Greed and ambition composed his personality"
form, constitute, make - to compose or represent:"This wall forms the background of the stage setting"; "The branches made a roof"; "This makes a fine introduction"
straddle, range - range or extend over; occupy a certain area; "The plants straddle the entire state"
supplement - serve as a supplement to; "Vitamins supplemented his meager diet"
|8.||be - work in a specific place, with a specific subject, or in a specific function; "He is a herpetologist"; "She is our resident philosopher"|
vet - work as a veterinarian; "She vetted for the farms in the area for many years"
cox - act as the coxswain, in a boat race
|9.||be - represent, as of a character on stage; "Derek Jacobi was Hamlet"|
stand for, symbolize, typify, symbolise, represent - express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol; "What does the Statue of Liberty symbolize?"
|10.||be - spend or use time; "I may be an hour"|
|11.||be - have life, be alive; "Our great leader is no more"; "My grandfather lived until the end of war"|
live on, survive, last, live, endure, hold out, hold up, go - continue to live through hardship or adversity; "We went without water and food for 3 days"; "These superstitions survive in the backwaters of America"; "The race car driver lived through several very serious accidents"; "how long can a person last without food and water?"
|12.||be - to remain unmolested, undisturbed, or uninterrupted -- used only in infinitive form; "let her be"|
|13.||be - be priced at; "These shoes cost $100"|
be - have the quality of being; (copula, used with an adjective or a predicate noun); "John is rich"; "This is not a good answer"
BEN ABBR (Fin) =bill of exchange → L/C
be[biː] (am, is, are (present) (was, were (pt)) (been (pp)))
he's a pianist → es pianista
he wants to be a doctor → quiere ser médico
Monday's a holiday → el lunes es fiesta
two and two are four → dos y dos son cuatro
it's me! → ¡soy yo!
it was me → fui yo
who wants to be Hamlet? → ¿quién quiere hacer de or ser Hamlet?
you be the patient and I'll be the doctor → tú eres el enfermo y yo seré el médico
if I were you → yo en tu lugar ..., yo que tú ...
she's his sister → es su hermana
it's mine → es mío
the sky is blue → el cielo es azul
it's (made of) plastic → es de plástico
they're English → son ingleses
he's tall → es alto
it's round/enormous → es redondo/enorme
she is boring → es aburrida
I used to be poor but now I'm rich → antes era pobre pero ahora soy rico
if I were rich → si fuera rico
I'm from the south → soy del sur
the book is in French → el libro es en francés
he's dead → está muerto
it's dirty → está sucio
she's bored/ill → está aburrida/enferma
how are you? → ¿cómo estás?, ¿qué tal estás?
how are you now? → ¿qué tal te encuentras ahora?
I'm very well, thanks → estoy muy bien, gracias
my feet are cold → tengo los pies fríos
I'm hungry/thirsty → tengo hambre/sed
be good! → ¡pórtate bien!
you're late → llegas tarde
see also afraid, sleepy, right
she will be two tomorrow → mañana cumple dos años
when I'm old → cuando sea viejo
when I was young → cuando era joven
the meeting's today → la reunión es hoy
the service will be at St Ninian's Church → el oficio será en la iglesia de San Ninian
Edinburgh is in Scotland → Edimburgo está en Escocia
it's on the table → está sobre or en la mesa
where is the Town Hall? → ¿dónde está or queda el ayuntamiento?
it's 5 km to the village → el pueblo está or queda a 5 kilómetros
he won't be here tomorrow → mañana no estará aquí
we've been here for ages → hace mucho tiempo que estamos aquí, llevamos aquí mucho tiempo, estamos aquí desde hace mucho tiempo
here you are, (take it) → aquí tienes, (tómalo)
there's the church → ahí está la iglesia
it's hot/cold → hace calor/frío
it's too hot → hace demasiado calor
it's fine → hace buen tiempo
see also windy, sunny, foggy
it's eight o'clock → son las ocho
it's morning in New York now → en Nueva York ahora es por la mañana
wake up, it's morning → despierta, es de día
what's the date (today)? → ¿qué fecha es hoy?
it's the 3rd of May → es 3 de mayo
it's Thursday today → hoy es jueves
it's Thursday today → hoy estamos a jueves
is it certain that ...? → ¿es verdad or cierto que ...?
it is easy to make a mistake → es fácil cometer un fallo
is it fair that she should be punished while ...? → ¿es justo que se la castigue mientras que ...?
it is possible that he'll come → es posible que venga, puede (ser) que venga
it is impossible to study all the time → es imposible estar siempre estudiando
it is unbelievable that → es increíble que ...
BUT it's not clear whether ... → no está claro si ...
it would be wrong for us to do that → no estaría bien que nosotros hiciésemos eso
there is/are → hay
what is (there) in that room? → ¿qué hay en esa habitación?
there is nothing more beautiful → no hay nada más bello
is there anyone at home? → ¿hay alguien en casa?
there were six road accidents here last year → el año pasado hubo seis accidentes de tráfico aquí
there must be an explanation → debe de haber una explicación
there being no alternative solution → al no haber or no habiendo otra solución ...
let there be light! → ¡hágase la luz!
BUT there are three of us → somos tres
there were three of them → eran tres
after the shop there's the bus station → después de la tienda está la estación de autobuses THERE
the book is £20 → el libro vale or cuesta 20 libras
how much is it? → ¿cuánto es?; (when paying) → ¿qué le debo? (frm)
he has been and gone → vino y se fue
I have been to see my aunt → he ido a ver a mi tía
have you ever been to Glasgow? → ¿has estado en Glasgow alguna vez?
I've been to China → he estado en China
mother to be → futura madre or mamá f
my wife to be → mi futura esposa
been and you've been and done it now! → ¡buena la has hecho!
that dog of yours has been and dug up my flowers! → ¡tu perro ha ido y me ha destrozado las flores!
you're busy enough as it is → estás bastante ocupado ya con lo que tienes, ya tienes suficiente trabajo
as things are → tal como están las cosas
be that as it may → sea como fuere
if it hadn't been for if it hadn't been for you or > had it not been for you, we would have lost (frm) → si no hubiera sido por ti or de no haber sido por ti, habríamos perdido
let me be! → ¡déjame en paz!
if that's what you want to do, then so be it → si eso es lo que quieres hacer, adelante
what is it to you? → ¿a ti qué te importa?
what's it to be? (in bar etc) → ¿qué va a ser?, ¿qué vas a tomar?
the house was destroyed by an earthquake → la casa fue destruida por un terremoto
these cars are produced in Spain → estos coches se fabrican en España
it is said that → dicen que ... → se dice que ...
he was killed by a terrorist → lo mató un terrorista
she was killed in a car crash → murió en un accidente de coche, resultó muerta en un accidente de coche (frm)
what's to be done? → ¿qué hay que hacer?
it's a film not to be missed → es una película que no hay que perderse
we searched everywhere for him, but he was nowhere to be seen → lo buscamos por todas partes pero no lo encontramos en ningún sitio
it's raining → está lloviendo
what are you doing? → ¿qué estás haciendo?, ¿qué haces?
don't distract me when I'm driving → no me distraigas cuando estoy conduciendo
he's always grumbling → siempre está quejándose
he was studying until the early hours → estuvo estudiando hasta la madrugada
"it's a pity you aren't coming with us" - "but I am coming!" → -¡qué pena que no vengas con nosotros! -¡sí que voy!
will you be seeing her tomorrow? → ¿la verás or la vas a ver mañana?
will you be needing more? → ¿vas a necesitar más?
I shall be seeing him → voy a verlo
I'll be seeing you → hasta luego, nos vemos (esp LAm)
see also for, since
he isn't as happy as he was → no está tan contento como antes
"he's going to complain about you" - "oh, is he?" → -va a quejarse de ti -¿ah, sí?
"I'm worried" - "so am I" → -estoy preocupado -yo también
"I'm not ready" - "neither am I" → -no estoy listo -yo tampoco
"you're tired" - "no, I'm not" → -estás cansado -no, ¡qué va!
"you're not eating enough" - "yes I am" → -no comes lo suficiente -que sí
"they're getting married" - "oh, are they?" (showing surprise) → -se casan -¿ah, sí? or -¡no me digas!
"he isn't very happy" - "oh, isn't he?" → -no está muy contento -¿ah, no?
"he's always late, isn't he?" - "yes, he is" → -siempre llega tarde, ¿verdad? -(pues) sí
"is it what you expected?" - "no, it isn't" → -¿es esto lo que esperabas? -(pues) no
"she's pretty" - "no, she isn't" → -es guapa -¡qué va!
it was fun, wasn't it? → fue divertido, ¿verdad?, fue divertido, ¿no?
she wasn't happy, was she? → no era feliz, ¿verdad?
so he's back again, is he? → así que ha vuelto, ¿eh?
you're not ill, are you? → ¿no estarás enfermo?
he's not to open it → no debe abrirlo, que no lo abra
I am to do it → he de hacerlo yo → soy yo el que debe hacerlo
I am not to speak to him → no tengo permiso para hablar con él
I wasn't to tell you his name → no podía or debía decirte su nombre
he is to be congratulated on his work → debemos felicitarlo por su trabajo
am I to understand that ...? → ¿debo entender que ...?
she wrote "My Life", not to be confused with Bernstein's book of the same name → escribió "Mi Vida", que no debe confundirse con la obra de Bernstein que lleva el mismo título
he was to have come yesterday → tenía que or debía haber venido ayer
he is to be pitied → es digno de lástima
her house is to be sold → su casa se pondrá a la venta
they are to be married in the summer → se casarán en el verano
little traffic was to be seen → había poco tráfico
you weren't to know → no tenías por qué saberlo
they were never to return → jamás regresaron
it was not to be → no quiso el destino que así fuera
if it was or were to snow → si nevase or nevara ...
if I were to leave the job, would you replace me? → si yo dejara el puesto, ¿me sustituirías?
"Ser" or "estar"?
You can use "ser":
You can use "estar":
Both "ser" and "estar" can be used with past participles
"Ser" and "estar" with adjectives
be[ˈbiː](STRONG) [bi] [was, were] (pt) [been] (pp)
What are you doing? → Que faites-vous?
They're coming tomorrow → Ils viennent demain.
I've been waiting for you for 2 hours → Je t'attends depuis 2 heures.
to be killed → être tué(e)
He was nowhere to be seen → On ne le voyait nulle part.
It was funny, wasn't it? → C'était drôle, n'est-ce pas?
She's not coming, is she? → Elle ne vient pas, c'est ça?
The house is to be sold → La maison doit être vendue.
He's not to open it → Il ne doit pas l'ouvrir.
He was to have come yesterday → Il devait venir hier.
am I to understand that ... ? → dois-je comprendre que ... ?
if it wasn't for you ... → sans vous, ...
I'm English → Je suis anglais(e).
I'm tired → Je suis fatigué(e).
You're late → Tu es en retard.
We are all happy → Nous sommes tous heureux.
They are in Paris at the moment → Ils sont à Paris en ce moment.
She's a doctor → Elle est médecin.
He's a student → Il est étudiant.
BUT J'ai froid.
BUT J'ai faim.
How are you? → Comment allez-vous?
He's fine now → Il va bien maintenant.
He's very ill
BUT Il est très malade.
I've been ill
BUT J'ai été malade.
to be not o.s.
He's not himself → Il n'est vraiment pas en forme.
How old are you? → Quel âge as-tu?, Quel âge avez-vous?
I'm fourteen → J'ai quatorze ans.
I'm sixteen years old → J'ai seize ans.
the prettiest girl that ever was → la fille la plus jolie qui ait jamais existé
be that as it may → quoi qu'il en soit
so be it → soit
Edinburgh is in Scotland → Édimbourg est en Écosse., Édimbourg se trouve en Écosse.
I won't be here tomorrow
BUT Je ne serai pas là demain.
it's 5 o'clock → il est 5 heures
it's the 28th of April → c'est le 28 avril
It's the 28th of October today
BUT Nous sommes le vingt-huit octobre.
it's 10 km to the village → le village est à 10 km
It's too hot → Il fait trop chaud.
it's a nice day → il fait beau
it's windy → il y a du vent
it's cold → il fait froid
It's too cold → Il fait trop froid.
It's the postman → C'est le facteur.
bepres <am, is, are>, pret <was, were>, ptp <been>
he’s a good student/a true Englishman → er ist ein guter Student/ein echter Engländer
what are you doing? → was machst du da?; she’s always complaining → sie beklagt sich dauernd; they’re coming tomorrow → sie kommen morgen
I have been waiting for you for half an hour → ich warte schon seit einer halben Stunde auf Sie; will you be seeing her tomorrow? → sehen or treffen Sie sie morgen?; you will be hearing from us → Sie hören von uns, Sie werden von uns hören
we’re just drinking coffee → wir sind (gerade) beim Kaffeetrinken; I’ve just been packing my case → ich war gerade beim Kofferpacken; I was packing my case when … → ich war gerade beim Kofferpacken, als …
? to be/not to be …
they are shortly to be married → sie werden bald heiraten; they were to have been married last week → sie hätten letzte Woche heiraten sollen; the car is to be sold → das Auto soll verkauft werden; she was to be/was to have been dismissed but … → sie sollte entlassen werden, aber …/sie hätte entlassen werden sollen, aber …
he is to be pitied/not to be envied → er ist zu bedauern/nicht zu beneiden; not to be confused with → nicht zu verwechseln mit; what is to be done? → was ist zu tun?, was soll geschehen?
I am to look after her → ich soll mich um sie kümmern; I am not to be disturbed → ich möchte nicht gestört werden; he is not to open it → er soll es nicht öffnen; I wasn’t to tell you his name → ich sollte or durfte Ihnen nicht sagen, wie er heißt; (but I did) → ich hätte Ihnen eigentlich nicht sagen sollen or dürfen, wie er heißt
she was never to return → sie sollte nie zurückkehren
he was not to be persuaded → er war nicht zu überreden, er ließ sich nicht überreden; if it were or was to snow → falls or wenn es schneien sollte; and were I or if I were to tell him? → und wenn ich es ihm sagen würde?
? here/there is… here is a book/are two books → hier ist ein Buch/sind zwei Bücher; here/there you are (= you’ve arrived) → da sind Sie ja; (= take this) → hier/da, bitte; (= here/there it is) → hier/da ist es/sind sie doch; there he was sitting at the table → da saß er nun am Tisch; nearby there are two churches → in der Nähe sind or stehen zwei Kirchen
→ sein; it is dark/morning → es ist dunkel/Morgen; tomorrow is Friday/the 14th of June → morgen ist Freitag/der 14. Juni, morgen haben wir Freitag/den 14. Juni; it is 5 km to the nearest town → es sind 5 km bis zur nächsten Stadt
? it was us/you etc who… it was us or we (form) who found it → WIR haben das gefunden, wir waren diejenigen, die das gefunden haben; it was me or I (form) who said it first → ICH habe es zuerst gesagt, ich war derjenige, der es zuerst gesagt hat
? were it not … were it not for the fact that I am a teacher, I would … → wenn ich kein Lehrer wäre, dann würde ich …; were it not for my friendship with him → wenn ich nicht mit ihm befreundet wäre; were it not for him, if it weren’t or wasn’t for him → wenn er nicht wäre; and even if it were not so → und selbst wenn das or dem nicht so wäre
? had it not been for… had it not been or if it hadn’t been for him → wenn er nicht gewesen wäre