Tampa: Ever since humans learnt to wrest food from soil, creatures like the corn earworm, the grain weevil and the bean fly
have dined on our agricultural bounty.
Common economically important diseases such as angular leaf spot and anthracnose and pests including bean stem maggot (bean fly
)  substantially reduce bean quality.
Fishing for Striped Bass Handbook, by Brad Burns.
Bean stem maggot (BSM), also known as bean fly
(Ophiomyia spp.) is the most important pest of beans in major bean-growing areas mainly Eastern and Southern Africa with yield losses ranging from 8 to 100% and 37 to 90% respectively being reported from these regions [6, 7].