The main compounds of the cuticle (alkenes and terpenes) and the defensive secretion (benzoquinones
) of this beetle have been characterized in previous chemical studies (7), and its adverse anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activities have been described (6-9).
Artificial neural network--Genetic algorithm to optimize wheat germ fermentation condition: Application to the production of two anti-tumor benzoquinones
. Food Chemistry, v.227, p.264-270, 2017.
Large quantities of HGA are excreted daily in the urine, where it oxidizes to benzoquinones
, which in turn form the melaninlike polymers that cause the discoloration of urine.
Additionally, in vitro spontaneous reaction of benzoquinones
[30, 31] and 15-deoxy-[[DELTA].sup.12,14]- prostaglandin J2 [32, 33] with GSH has been documented, and recently, the involvement of nonenzymatic GSH conjugation in conversion of microcystins (toxins produced by cyanobacteria) was reported .
Elango, Spectroscopic Studies on the Formation of Molecular Complexes of Sulfamethoxazole with novel 2,3,5-trichloro-6-alkoxy-1,4- benzoquinones
These compounds belong to numerous chemical groups including trike-tones, terpenes, benzoquinones
, coumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids, strigolactones, phenolic acids, tannins lignin, fatty acids and non-protein amino acids (Soltys et al., 2013).
One potential pathway to achieve a complex I-independent form of mitochondrial respiration was recently described by us and others and involves the use of short-chain benzoquinones
. We observed that some of those compounds are able to partially restore mitochondrial electron flow under conditions of a dysfunctional complex I [45,46]; an observation that was later independently confirmed .
Plants belonging to the genus Garcinia, belonging to the family Clusiaceae, are known to contain bioactive compounds such as xanthones, biflavonoids, benzophenones, benzoquinones
, and triterpenes which have antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects .
Synthesis of benzoquinones
from 4-alkenyl-4-hydroxycyclobutenones," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.
Fermented wheat germ extract differs from ordinary wheat germ in that it is fermented with baker's yeast to concentrate biologically active benzoquinones