The biostimulants derived from the seaweed extract Ascophyllum nodosum are constituted by several phytohormones, mainly auxins and cytokinins, presenting different concentrations (DURAND et al., 2003; RAYIRATH et al., 2008), as well as betaines
(MACKINNON et al., 2010), organic and inorganic compounds, essential nutrients, carbohydrates and amino acids (RIOUX et al., 2007).
Cationic surfactants are obtained by the reaction of tertiary amines with classical alkylating agents, whereas alkylation processes of betaines
and true amphoteric surfactants produce amphoteric surfactants.
, and amine oxides are pH sensitive zwitterionics, displaying anionic or nonionic properties above the isoelectric point, and cationic below the isoelectric point.
Sorption of fluorotelomersulfonates, fluorotelomer sulfonamido betaines
, and a fluorotelomer sulfonamido amine in national foam aqueous film-forming foam to soil.
Larher, "Osmoregulation in halophytic higher-plants-a comparative-study of soluble carbohydrates, polyols, betaines
and free proline," Plant, Cell and Environment, vol.
Le Rudulier, "Variations in the response of salt-stressed Rhizobium strains to betaines
," Archives of Microbiology, vol.
These products usually have a neutral pH, and include ingredients such as alkyl glyceryl, ether sulfonate, alpha olefin sulfonates, betaines
, sulfosuccinates, sodium cocoyl monoglyceride sulfate, and sodium cocoyl isethionate.
All Essence formulations are made without using parabens, formaldehyde donor, MIT/CMIT, sulfates, betaines
, silicones, petrolatum, or mineral oil.
These solutes include polyols such as glycerol, mannitol, sugars, or sugar derivatives; betaines
and amino acids, including proline, glutamate, and glutamine, as reported by Grant (4), additionally glycerol has since been reported as the major internal osmolyte in four xerophilic fungi by (5, 6).
Accumulation of various compatible solutes (free proline, betaines
and sugars) occurs in response to water deficit, which help maintain intercellular osmotic potential without disturbing the metabolic reactions of the plants (Sairam and Saxena, 2000).
They are particularly rich in phytohormones (indoleacetic acids (IAA), commonly known as auxins, gibberellic acids, cytokinins, abscisic acids (ABA), and ethylene), complex organic compounds, vitamins, simple and complex sugars (polysaccharides like alginates, laminaria, and carrageenans), enzymes, N-containing compounds like betaines
, proteins, and amino acids and sterols .
Schnaare, "Antimicrobial evaluation of N-alkyl betaines
and N-alkyl-N, Ndimethylamine oxides with variations in chain length," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.