In a drug class called biguanides
, it's inexpensive, and--unlike some other options--doesn't cause weight gain.
Current drug treatment of diabetes besides insulin is oral hypoglycemic drugs including insulin sensitizers (biguanides
, thiazolidinediones), insulin secretagogues (sulfonylureas, meglitinides), [alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4.
suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP," Nature, vol.
Other oral biguanides
, phenformin and buformin, were introduced in subsequent years.
There are seven pharmacologic subclasses of oral antidiabetic agents: alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides
, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, meglitinides, sulfonylureas, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones.
TYPES AND NAMES OF DIABETES MEDICATIONS* CLASS BRAND NAMES Biguanides
Glucophage, Fortamet GLP-1 receptor agonists Trulicity, Tanzeum, Bydureon, Victoza DPP-IV inhibitors Januvia, Onglyza, Nesina SGLT-2 inhibitors Invokana, Farxiga, Jardiance Sulfonylureas Amaryl, Glucotrol, DiaBeta, Glynase Insulin Tresiba, Toujeo, Afrezza, Levemir, Lantus Combination drugs Janumet, Jentadueto, Kombiglyze, Tradjenta, Kazano, Oseni * This chart provides examples of some, but not all, medications used to treat diabetes.
In our ongoing research on molecules with antidiabetic activity [6, 7], we report in this manuscript the preparation of ten alicyclic and aromatic biguanides
(Table 1), as well as the in vitro activation of AMPK.
Figure 5 shows "Biguanides
" instances of the "Glucose-Lowering_Agents" class and Figure 6 shows an example of patient_1's instance.
One of the most studied possible molecular targets for biguanides
action is their inhibitory action on respiratory chain complex I (NADH dehydrogenase, NDH), first described in liver tissue [8, 22].
The global diabetes drugs and devices market report estimates the market size (Revenue USD million - 2013 to 2020) for key market segments based on the drug type (insulin derivatives - short-acting, intermediate-acting, long-acting, premixed, and rapid-acting insulin; oral anti-diabetes drugs - alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides
, DPP-4 inhibitors, meglitinides, SGLT-2 inhibitors, sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones; and non-insulin injectable anti-diabetes drugs - GLP-1 analogs), device type (diabetes monitoring and diagnostic devices - analog glucose meter, continuous glucose monitoring devices, glucose test strips, lancets and lancing devices; insulin delivery devices - insulin injectors, pens, pumps, syringes, etc.), and forecasts growth trends (CAGR% - 2016 to 2020).
inhibits pyruvate carboxylase and dehydrogenase and causes more lactate accumulation.