Diet, rumen biohydrogenation
and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat.
The formation of large SFA is a result of the biohydrogenation
process in the rumen during which bacteria convert unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA.
Essential oil is applied as an antibacterial agent in dairy cows to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria that will be able to reduce biohydrogenation
of fatty acid and produce higher conjugated linoleic acid translO, cis12 with minimum effect of fatty acid in cow's milk (84).
In ruminants, the processes of lipolysis and biohydrogenation
which occur in the rumen level substantially modify the dietetic lipids, so that the poly-unsaturated fatty acids are present in small amounts in the fat of the adipose deposits in these animals; furthermore, it highlights that these are almost exclusively restricted to the phospholipid fraction (Wood et al., 2008).
Ruminant meat can be considered a good dietary source of several nutrients (Wahle et al., 2004), however, it has also been censured for its high level of intramuscular fat, which is particularly rich in SFA due to rumen biohydrogenation
of dietary fats, especially PUFAs (Doreau and Ferlay, 1993; Glasser et al., 2008).
Unsaturated fatty acids serve as electron acceptors during biohydrogenation
, causing this depression in CH4 production.
On the other hand, grape seed inclusion in the diet of dairy sheep can decrease the SFA and increase MUFA and PUFA milk concentration , which was thought to be caused by this subproduct being a rich source of linoleic acid and polyphenols, which could modulate the ruminal biohydrogenation
Ebrahimi, "Manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation by polyphenol rich solvent fractions from papaya leaf to reduce green-house gas methane and biohydrogenation
of C18 PUFA," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.
In addition, 5beta-cholestanone, an oxidation product of 5beta-coprostanol formed via biohydrogenation
of cholesterol, decreased by 5-fold in diazinon-treated female mice, which was not statistically significantly altered in male mice.
Vercoe, "Australian plants with potential to inhibit bacteria and processes involved in ruminal biohydrogenation
of fatty acids," Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol.
The conjugated linoleic acid CLA is formed by rumen biohydrogenation
of intermediate linoleic acid (Lee, 2013) and if the biohydrogenation
is not complete, it may be absorbed by the gut epithelium and will be part of the animal fat (Ladeira & Oliveira, 2007).