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But unexamined assumptions about biological determinism, compounded by cultural ideas about masculinity, have created a situation that places men at risk for worse health outcomes from a surprisingly early age.
Considering especially the phenomenology of darkness--a subject reflecting Scott's expansion of the scope of the agrarian in generative ways--the chapter traces the ways the Macbeths seek to separate human agency from the reception of an external nature of biological determinism.
Perry is chiefly motivated, however, by an admirable concern about the ways that biological determinism can lead to injustice--and the record of the past would seem to give him plenty of material with which to work.
Here, he debunks the idea of biological determinism (also known as social Darwinism), which holds that human behavior is totally controlled by our genes, instead arguing that human behavior, while influenced by biology and genetics, is not completely biologically determined.
This argument eschews any type of genetic or biological determinism.
Biological determinism has attracted a number of criticisms, which tend to challenge the role of biology as critical or given.
Study 1 included a control condition in which no information about the biological determinism of sexuality was provided to the participants.
Some will be less comfortable with the biological determinism that occasionally animates Zmora's book.
But it is hard to see how they work their way out of their own box of biological determinism.
While some forms of biological determinism, such as the belief that race or gender dictates a person's destiny, have been widely rejected, the idea that a person can be genetically predisposed, say, to get into debt, become a ruthless dictator, or vote regularly in elections remains socially acceptable.
Rather than promoting social stratification, hierarchies, and biological determinism, Fletcher argues, feminist Darwinism endorses a type of tolerant pluralism that is best exemplified in the prairie novels of writer Willa Gather.
For example, psychical research, spiritualism, somnambulism, philosophy and psychology all feature prominently in the scientific content used to put forward the book's argument even though these modes of investigation are not traditionally thought of as either brain science, neurology or rigid biological determinism in any straightforward sense.

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