To differentiate between organic fouling and biological fouling
, TOC, polysaccharides, proteins, and CFU measurements (Figure 5) and SEM were performed.
The process of biological fouling
is often grouped into key growth stages as shown in Figure 1 which illustrates the accumulation of adsorbed organics, settlement and growth of bacteria creating a biofilm matrix and subsequent succession of micro- and macrofoulers.
(1,2) They not only control accumulation of biological fouling
but the super-smooth surfaces also reduce frictional drag on ship hulls, resulting in substantial fuel savings.
The Qatar Ministry of Environment has concurred with Qatargas to acknowledge the technology as a method to control biological fouling
in its seawater cooling system and satisfying regulatory concerns over the use of hypochlorite in once through seawater cooling water systems.
In cooling tower applications, four major mechanisms of fouling are expected: (a) precipitation fouling (scaling), (b) biological fouling
(slime), (c) corrosion fouling, and (d) particulate fouling (sedimentation) (Haider, et al.
The principal types of fouling encountered in process HE includes: particulate fouling, crystallisation fouling, corrosion fouling, biological fouling
and chemical reaction fouling [2--4].
. Biological fouling
is an undesirable accumulation of organisms such as algae, bacteria, diatoms, plants, and animals on surfaces.
In cooling tower applications, four major mechanisms of fouling are expected: (1) precipitation fouling (scaling), (2) biological fouling
(slime), (3) corrosion fouling, and (4) particulate fouling (sedimentation) (Haider et al.
Marine biological fouling
is defined as the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces immersed in seawater.
Like the original model, this one uses a patented bimetallic process media to prevent scale formation, remove existing scale, control biological fouling
, and inhibit corrosion--all without chemicals.