Wolves (Canis lupus) and cougars (Puma concolor) were completely eliminated from Michigan's Lower Peninsula and the early to mid-successional forests common now are very favorable for the mammals discussed here as well as for other popular game species such as wild turkey (Melleagris gallopavo) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa
umbellus), which are common in PRSF.
scotica: 3 and Bonasa
bonasia: 2; North America: Centrocercus urophasianus: 3, Tympanuchus phasianellus: 1).
Hares scavenged a variety of different species, including Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis), Common Loon (Gavia immer), Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa
umbelius), and Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis).
Since then, several more avian species have been reported to present chemical defense, including: Ifrita kowaldi, Plectropterus gambesis, Ergaticus ruber, Bonasa
umbellus, Phaps elegans, and Phaps chalcoptera (Bartram & Boland, 2001).
It was early spring, and the male ruffed grouse (Bonasa
umbellus) was protecting his newly proclaimed territory: about 10 acres of young deciduous forest in front of my brother's house in Western New York.
542 352 lagopus * Grouse 635 413 (unidentified) * Ruffed Grouse Bonasa
591 41% 384 umbellus * Spruce Grouse 595 41% 387 Falcipennis canadensis * Sooty Grouse 1004 653 Dendragapus fuliginosus Sharp-tailed Grouse 720 468 Tympanuchusphasianellus * Short-tailed Shearwater 527 343 Puffinus tenuirostris * Cormorant 1985 1290 (unidentified) * Double-crested Cormorant 2330 1515 Phalacrocorax auritus Red-faced Cormorant 2138 8% 1390 P.
2006a: Home range and habitat selection of hazel grouse Bonasa
bonasia in a temperate forest of South Korea.
Neoplasia in free-flying ruffed grouse (Bonasa
In Indiana, ruffed grouse (Bonasa
umbellus; another species that occupies early successional habitat) populations have been in decline for the past 25 years (Backs & Castrale 2014).
There are no reports of chondrosarcoma in parrots and few descriptions in other bird species, such as ruffed grouse (Bonasa
umbellus) (SIEGFRIED, 1983), great egret (Ardea herodius occidentalis and Ardea alba) (SPALDING & WOODARD, 1992; KUBO et al., 2007), yellow-collared macaw (Ara auricollis) (KENNEDY et al., 1995), chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) (DITTMER et al., 2012), and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (ERDOGAN et al., 2013).
Phalocrocorax atriceps muscles (0.29 mg/kg dry wt.), liver of Bonasa
umbellus (1.0 mg/kg dry wt.), Fulica Americana from (1.5 mg/kg fresh wt.) in muscle, Gavia immer (1.1 mg/kg fresh wt.), Larus fuscus in liver (2.0 mg/ kg dry wt.) and in muscle (5.0 mg/kg dry wt.).