Wolves (Canis lupus) and cougars (Puma concolor) were completely eliminated from Michigan's Lower Peninsula and the early to mid-successional forests common now are very favorable for the mammals discussed here as well as for other popular game species such as wild turkey (Melleagris gallopavo) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus
), which are common in PRSF.
scotica, America: Centrocercus urophasianus, Tympanuchus cupido, Bonasa umbellus
Since then, several more avian species have been reported to present chemical defense, including: Ifrita kowaldi, Plectropterus gambesis, Ergaticus ruber, Bonasa umbellus
, Phaps elegans, and Phaps chalcoptera (Bartram & Boland, 2001).
It was early spring, and the male ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus
) was protecting his newly proclaimed territory: about 10 acres of young deciduous forest in front of my brother's house in Western New York.
Neoplasia in free-flying ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus
Phalocrocorax atriceps muscles (0.29 mg/kg dry wt.), liver of Bonasa umbellus
(1.0 mg/kg dry wt.), Fulica Americana from (1.5 mg/kg fresh wt.) in muscle, Gavia immer (1.1 mg/kg fresh wt.), Larus fuscus in liver (2.0 mg/ kg dry wt.) and in muscle (5.0 mg/kg dry wt.).
Nas demais especies de aves, este neoplasma e considerado incomum (LATIMER, 1994), mas casos foram relatados em Loris-arco-iris (Trichoglossushaematodus capistratus) (HUBBARD & FLETCHER, 1983); em Tetraz (Bonasa umbellus
) (HOWERTH et al., 1986); em Pomba-domestica (Columba livia), em Faisao-coleira (Phasianus colchicus), em Calopsita (Nymphicus hollandicus) (REECE, 1992); em Papagaio-cinzento-africano (Psittacuserithacus erithacus) (LATIMER et al., 1996); e em Aguia-real (Aquila chrysaetos) (MIKAELIAN et al., 1998).
While some (e.g., Winterhalder 1983) rely on the notion that moose populations have consistently fluctuated due to climatic and anthropogenic influences as evidence of the continued occurrence of moose in our diet, others (e.g., Rogers and Black 1976, Hamilton 2002) reference the "Fish and Hare Period" to support the notion that there were times when moose were rare to non-existent and the dietary staples came from other sources, such as walleye (Sander vitreus), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus
), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), and beaver (Castor canadensis).
The distribution of ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus
) in Indiana has historically fluctuated with changing land use.
In 1947, the hunting season was closed on Huns and partially closed on woodchucks (Marmota monax); ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus
had increased enough to have a 2-week season with a bag limit of 2 (12 June 1947).
Conferyl benzoate in quaking aspen (Populus tremloides--its effects on energy and nitrogen digestion and retention in ruffled grouse (Bonasa umbellus
Similarly, Sharptailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus
), and Prairie Grouse (Tympanuchus cupido) in North America showed synchronous [sim]10-yr cycles (Keith 1963).